Endometriosis and the Urinary Tract: From Diagnosis to Surgical Treatment
Acute Gynaecology, Early Pregnancy and Advanced Endoscopy Surgery Unit, Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, NSW 2747, Australia
Nepean Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2747, Australia
Endometriosis Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N3Z5, Canada
Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Department of Medical and Surgical Gynecology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA
IMPC Radiology Bachaumont Paris and Radiodiagnostics Department, Hôpital Necker, 75015 Paris, France
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, S. Orsola Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(10), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100771
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Tumor Imaging)
We aim to describe the diagnosis and surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE). We detail current diagnostic tools, including advanced transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical diagnostic tools such as cystourethroscopy. While discussing surgical treatment options, we emphasize the importance of an interdisciplinary team for complex cases that involve the urinary tract. While bladder deep endometriosis (DE) is more straightforward in its surgical treatment, ureteral DE requires a high level of surgical skill. Specialists should be aware of the important entity of UTE, due to the serious health implications for women. When UTE exists, it is important to work within an interdisciplinary radiological and surgical team.