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Correction published on 19 October 2018, see Life 2018, 8(4), 48.
Review

How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

1
Research Institute for Photobiological Hydrogen Production, Kanagawa University, Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293, Japan
2
The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Kanagawa University, Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John C. Meeks and Robert Haselkorn
Life 2015, 5(1), 997-1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/life5010997
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria: Ecology, Physiology and Genetics)
Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; hydrogen; photosynthesis; nitrogenase; heterocyst; renewable energy; mariculture cyanobacteria; hydrogen; photosynthesis; nitrogenase; heterocyst; renewable energy; mariculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakurai, H.; Masukawa, H.; Kitashima, M.; Inoue, K. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects. Life 2015, 5, 997-1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/life5010997

AMA Style

Sakurai H, Masukawa H, Kitashima M, Inoue K. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects. Life. 2015; 5(1):997-1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/life5010997

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakurai, Hidehiro, Hajime Masukawa, Masaharu Kitashima, and Kazuhito Inoue. 2015. "How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects" Life 5, no. 1: 997-1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/life5010997

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