Next Article in Journal
Targeting Specific Checkpoints in the Management of SARS-CoV-2 Induced Cytokine Storm
Previous Article in Journal
Non-Photosynthetic Melainabacteria (Cyanobacteria) in Human Gut: Characteristics and Association with Health
 
 
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
Review

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): A Review of Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Uses

1
Department of Plant Biology (Plant Physiology), Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan 93000, Morocco
3
CIQ(UP)—Research Center in Chemistry, DGAOT, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
4
Biology and Health Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan 93000, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2022, 12(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040479
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 14 March 2022 / Accepted: 20 March 2022 / Published: 25 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)

Abstract

:
Matricaria chamomilla L. is a famous medicinal plant distributed worldwide. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat all kinds of diseases, including infections, neuropsychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and liver disorders. It is also used as a sedative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, and antiemetic. In this review, reports on M. chamomilla taxonomy, botanical and ecology description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological and pharmacological properties, possible application in different industries, and encapsulation were critically gathered and summarized. Scientific search engines such as Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar were used to gather data on M. chamomilla. The phytochemistry composition of essential oils and extracts of M. chamomilla has been widely analyzed, showing that the plant contains over 120 constituents. Essential oils are generally composed of terpenoids, such as α-bisabolol and its oxides A and B, bisabolone oxide A, chamazulene, and β-farnesene, among other compounds. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts were dominated by phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins. In addition, M. chamomilla demonstrated several biological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. These activities allow the application of M. chamomilla in the medicinal and veterinary field, food preservation, phytosanitary control, and as a surfactant and anti-corrosive agent. Finally, the encapsulation of M. chamomilla essential oils or extracts allows the enhancement of its biological activities and improvement of its applications. According to the findings, the pharmacological activities of M. chamomilla confirm its traditional uses. Indeed, M. chamomilla essential oils and extracts showed interesting antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, anti-pyretic, anti-allergic, and analgesic activities. Moreover, the most important application of M. chamomilla was in the medicinal field on animals and humans.

1. Introduction

Matricaria chamomilla, usually referred to as chamomile, is a well-known medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family. It is an annual herb that grows on all soil types and is resistant to cold. M. chamomilla is native to southern and eastern Europe and northern and western Asia [1]. Nowadays, it is widely distributed all around the world [2]. M. chamomilla has been used traditionally in several countries to cure a number of diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders [3], common cold [4], liver disorders [5], neuropsychiatric and respiratory problems [6]. Also, this plant is widely used against pain and infections [7] and to cure skin, eye, and mouth diseases [8] (Figure 1).
The phytochemical composition of M. chamomilla essential oil (EO) and extracts has been reported, with over 120 constituents identified. In general, terpenoids formed the most important compound group in M. chamomilla EO, with the most important compounds being bisabolol and its oxides A and B, bisabolone oxide A, chamazulene, and β-farnesene (Figure 2). This composition is influenced by several factors, such as the geographic regions and environment [9,10], plant cultivars [11], and genetic factors [12]. Other factors related to the drying techniques [13], extraction techniques [14], salicylic acid concentrations [11], and the use of cyanobacterial suspensions as bio-fertilizers [15] can also influence EO chemical composition. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts were dominated by phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins. In addition, the amino acid composition has also been studied [16]. Their chemical composition of coumarin, phenolic acid, and flavonoids contents was influenced by treatment with ethephon [17], cadmium, and copper [18].
Pharmacological investigations reported that M. chamomilla has several biological activities (Figure 1). The antioxidant activity of EO and extracts was investigated using several tests. Moreover, enzyme activities of extracts were assessed for catalase, acetylcholine esterase, glutathione, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, the antioxidant activity determined in cell suspension culture [19], extracts from waste after chamomile processing [20], and polyphenolic–polysaccharide conjugates [21] was investigated. On the other hand, M. chamomilla exhibited an antibacterial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the effect of M. chamomilla EO on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and alginate production was investigated [22]. The plant also showed activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus MRSA [23,24] and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa [25]. Moreover, M. chamomilla extract exhibited an anti-adherence activity against several bacterial strains [26]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla EO and extracts exhibited antifungal activity against several fungal strains, especially against Candida sp. and Aspergillus sp. Generally, M. chamomilla’s effect on oxidative stress, bacterial, and fungal strains varied depending on several factors, including plant origin, organ used, extraction solvent, and technique. In addition, M. chamomilla exhibited antiparasitic, insecticidal [27,28], anti-diabetic [29], anticancer [30,31], and anti-inflammatory activities [32] (Figure 1).
Based on the wide range of pharmacological activities demonstrated by M. chamomilla, its possible use in several fields has been investigated. The most important application of M. chamomilla was in the medicinal field. Indeed, several studies on animal models and patients showed the therapeutic effect of this plant on a wide range of diseases, including nervous diseases [33], reproductive diseases [34], diabetes [35], obesity and related metabolic disorders [36], cardiovascular diseases [37], gastrointestinal diseases [38,39,40], allergies [41], skin diseases [42], eye diseases [43], and mouth problems [44]. The plant also allowed pain-relieving [45], wound healing [46], and acted as a protective agent for kidney and liver [47], gastrointestinal [48], and reproductive systems [49]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla can be used as an anesthetic in aquaculture [50], supplementary animal feed [51], and food industry [52], as antifungal in agriculture [53], as a surfactant agent in chemical enhanced oil recovery [54], and as an anti-corrosive agent in federated mild steel [55]. In addition, M. chamomilla EOs and/or extracts have been encapsulated into silica nanoparticles [56], silver nanoparticles [57], chitosan nanocapsules [58], and alginate microcapsules [59]. This encapsulation allowed the enhancement of their properties such as anti-cancer [60], antiparasitic [58], catalytic [61], antibacterial, and antifungal activities [56,57,62], and also can improve their use as food additive [63].

2. Botanical and Ethnomedicinal Use

2.1. Taxonomy and Synonym

Matricaria chamomilla L. is a well-known medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family that has been called the “star among medicinal species” [64]. M. chamomilla (synonym Matricaria recutita L. Rauschert and Chamomilla recutita) is an old-time drug famously known as chamomile, German chamomile, Roman chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, and English chamomile [65,66]. The real chamomile is frequently mistaken with plants belonging to the Anthemis genus, especially Anthemis cotula L., a toxic plant with a terrible odor [67].

2.2. Botanical and Ecology Description

M. chamomilla is an annual herb with thin, spindle-shaped roots. The branched, erect stem grows to a height of 10 to 80 cm. The narrow and long leaves are bi- to tripinnate. M. chamomilla flower heads are pedunculate, heterogamous, separately placed with a diameter of 10 to 30 mm. The golden yellow tubular florets with 5 teeth are 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, always ending in a glandulous tube. The 11 to 27 white plant flowers are 6 to 11 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, and arranged concentrically. The receptacle is 6 to 8 mm wide, flat in the beginning, and conical. The fruit is a yellowish-brown cypsela with 3–5 faint ribs [1,2]. M. chamomilla can be grown on any type of soil, but growing the crop in rich, heavy, and damp soils should be avoided. It can grow at temperatures ranging from 7 °C to 26 °C and annual rainfall of 400 to 1400 mm per season. The plant can withstand cold weather but grows better in full sun and requires long summer days and high temperatures for optimum EO yield [68]. M. chamomilla is a diploid cell (2n = 18), allogamous in nature, starts blooming from the second week of March, and exhibits wide segregation as a commercial crop [2,69].

2.3. Geographic Distribution

M. chamomilla is native to southern and eastern Europe and northern and western Asia. It has also been introduced in many countries and has been naturalized in Britain, Australia, and North America [1,70]. Nowadays, it is widely distributed and cultivated. The plant is grown in Germany, Hungary, France, Yugoslavia, Russia, Brazil, New Zealand, and North Africa [2]. In Morocco, M. chamomilla is located in two separate areas, the first between Tangier, Ouezzane, Souk Larbaa, Moulay Bousselham, and Azilah, and the second between Kenitra, Sidi Slimane, Khemisset, and Rabat [71].

2.4. Ethnomedicinal Use

M. chamomilla is one of the most known plants for its traditional medicinal uses (Table 1). The traditional application of M. chamomilla depends on the plant parts (flower, leaves, stem, and whole plant) and the preparation methods (infusion, decoction, vapor inhalation, bath, and compress).
In traditional Moroccan medicine, several studies from different regions reported that flowers of M. chamomilla (Babonj/Babounj) represent the most used part, followed by leaves and whole plant. It is prepared as an infusion or decoction for the treatment of diabetes [72,73], nervous disorders, diarrhea, angina, canker sore, abscess, infections, and painful menstruation [7,74,75]. In Spain, M. chamomilla is used as an infusion against several diseases, including gastralgia, digestive disorder, female genital infection, and kidney stones [76]. In addition, the plant can be used as a sedative, antiseptic, antiemetic against nausea, and anti-inflammatory against gastric and intestinal disorders, also in eye irritations [77]. In Portugal, M. chamomilla flowering top is traditionally used against several diseases, including sciatic pain and infection of the mouth, throat, ear, and skin [6]. In Turkey, the infusion is used against colic spasm, cold, and as a sedative [4]. In Italian traditional medicine, M. chamomilla has been widely used against sprain, broken bones, irritability, and muscular or gastrointestinal pain [3]. In addition, it has been used as a sedative [78,79] and as a yellow dye, and for bleaching hair [79]. In Serbia, the infusion of M. chamomilla is used to strengthen the immune system and treat burns, stomach disorders, vaginal disorders, liver disorders, skin, and mucus inflammation. In addition, the infusion is used in skin, eye, and mouth care, and as an aroma for shampoos [5,80,81,82,83,84]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla is used in Greece to treat a number of gastrointestinal disorders, skin problems, and eye infections [8]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla tea is used in southeastern Albania to treat cough, diarrhea, and intestinal discomfort [85]. In Bulgaria, the plant is used against cold, throat pain, genitalia, swollen eyes, and for cleansing the face [86].
Table 1. Ethnomedicinal use of M. chamomilla.
Table 1. Ethnomedicinal use of M. chamomilla.
Area of Study/Country Local NamePart UsedMode of PreparationTraditional UseReferences
Taza region (Morocco)BabonjFlowerInfusion DecoctionDiabetes[72]
Beni Mellal (Morocco)BabounjFlowerInfusion Diabetes mellitus[73]
Daraa-Tafilalet region, Errachidia province (Morocco)Not specifiedWhole plantInfusion Nervous disorders[74]
Tarfaya Province (Morocco)BabounjLeavesDecoctionAntispasmodic[75]
Fez (Morocco)BabounjFlowerInfusion
Decoction
Colic, diarrhea, nervousness, depression, angina, canker sore, painful menstruation, fever, abscess, infections[7]
Hatay Province (Turkey)Babuneç PapatyaFlower headInfusionCold, colic spasm, sedative[4]
Granada province (southern Spain)Not specifiedFlowery plantInfusionGastralgia, digestive disorder, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhea, cold, cough, gases, female genital infection, kidney stones, eye infection, headache, insomnia[76]
Alt Empordà region (Catalonia, Spain)Camamilla, Camamilla de jardíNot specifiedDecoction
Infusion
Antiseptic, ocular antiseptic, conjunctivitis, digestive, gastric and intestinal anti-inflammatory, stomachache, nausea, antiemetic[77]
Trás-os-Montes (northern Portugal)CamomilaFlowering topInfusion DecoctionDepression, nervousness, stress, insomnia, neuralgia, sciatic pain, digestive, stomachache, gases, intestinal colic, infection of mouth, throat, and ear, cellulitis, asthma[6]
Island of Procida (Campania, southern Italy)CammumillaWhole plant
Stem
Inflorescence
Infusion
Decoction
In the bath
Cold, cough, sprain, broken bones, irritability, tired eyes, conjunctivitis, abdominal colic, gastrointestinal pain, muscular pain, menstrual pain[3]
National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano (southern Italy)HammamillaAerial partsInfusionSedative, dye yellow, bleach hair[79]
Monte Sicani Regional Park Central Western Sicily (southern Italy)KamilicaFlowerInfusionSedative, digestive[78]
BulgariaNot specifiedFlower headDecoction
Inhalation
Compress
Throat pain, cold, swollen eyes, cleansing face, genitalia[86]
Southeastern AlbaniaKamilica KoromilFlowering topsTeaIntestinal discomfort, diarrhea, cough[85]
Pirot County (eastern Serbia)Bela rada, kamilica, podrumceFlowerInfusionStomach disorder[80]
Rtanj Mt. (eastern Serbia) Kamilica Flower InfusionImmune system strengthening, cold, sedative, conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory[84]
Negotin Krajina (eastern Serbia)KamilicaFlower
Leaves
Infusion Digestive disorder, vaginal disorder, eye care
skin care, aroma for shampoos
[81]
Jablanica district (southeastern Serbia)KamilicaHerbInfusionSkin and mucus inflammation, digestive disorder, cough, anxiety, eyewash, mouthwash [82]
Zlatibor district (southwestern Serbia)Not specifiedHerbInfusionCold and stomach disorder[83]
Pčinja district (southeastern Serbia)KamilicaHerbInfusionSkin inflammation, burns, digestive disorder, liver disorder, cough, anxiety, insomnia, eyewash, mouthwash[5]
Peloponnisos (Greece)HamomiliInflorescences Infusion
Compress
Vapor inhalation
Stomach disorder, constipation, ulcer, colic, allergy, insomnia, migraine, stress, skin problems (inflammation, dermatitis, acne, burn, eczema, itching, wound antiseptic), catarrh, sore throat, eye infection, aphthae, gingivitis, eyewash, mouthwash[8]

3. Phytochemical Interest

The phytochemical composition of M. chamomilla EO and extracts has been widely investigated, and more than 120 constituents have been identified. Due to the large number of investigations found in this section, we have reported only the major studies reflecting the chemical composition in different environmental areas (Table 2). The phytochemical screening of EO and extracts was carried out using chromatographic techniques and focused on the flowers since they are the most used plant organ. Generally, the chemical composition of EO and extracts showed the abundance of terpenoids (Figure 2) and phenolic compounds, commonly phenolic acids (Figure 3), flavonoids (Figure 4), and coumarins (Figure 5).
Generally, the chemical composition varied significantly depending on the origin of the plants. The EO from Moroccan M. chamomilla obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation showed 24 chemical components representing 98.49% of the total EO, with chamazulene (26.11%) as the main component, followed by cis-β-farnesene (11.64%) and eucalyptol (8.19%) [87]. In another study from Egypt, Abbas et al. [13] compared the chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh and dried flowers using different techniques (sunlight, shade, oven, solar dryer, and microwave). The findings of this work showed that the main component of all EO was α-bisabolol oxide A (33–50.5%). The drying methods used in this study significantly influenced the number of compounds identified, with 21 compounds found after solar drying and only 13 found after microwave drying. On the other hand, EL-Hefny et al. reported cis-β-farnesene (27%) as the main component of Egyptian EO, followed by D-limonene (15.25%) and α-bisabolol oxide A (14.9%) [88]. In another study on M. chamomilla from Turkey, the EOs obtained from plants cultivated in two locations (Konya and Karaman) showed a quantitative difference in their chemical composition, with a dominance of α-bisabolol (27.36–38.6%), β-farnesene (25.05–30.15%), and chamazulene (13.5–13.93%) [89]. Furthermore, Berechet et al. found that M. chamomilla EO from Romania is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes (91.65%), dominated by bisabolol oxide A (70.2%) [90]. Brazilian M. chamomilla EO was formed of 18 compounds, mainly α-bisabolol oxide B (26.08%), β-farnesene (16.35%), and bisabolol oxide A (14.7%) [91]. The EOs extracted from 13 cultivated Italian M. chamomilla were mainly composed of cis-tonghaosu (11.8–45.9%) or α-bisabolol oxide B (3.7–28.1%) [92]. In general, these results showed high variation in component quantity in EOs, which is attributed to the effect of the environment on plant development. On the other hand, several studies reported the chemical composition of Iranian M. chamomilla EO. Generally, the EO was dominated either by α-bisabolol oxide A [11,12,14,15,93,94,95,96,97,98], α-bisabolone oxide A [10,12], bisabolol oxide A [11], α-bisabolol [96], bisabolol oxide B [11], α-bisabolol oxide B [12], α-bisabolol oxide B and chamazulene [10], chamazulene [95], cis-pinocamphone [14], trans- and cis-γ-bisabolene [10], or trans-β-farnesene [94]. This composition varied depending on the extraction technique [14], geographical factors [10], environmental conditions (normal or heat stress), plant cultivar, and salicylic acid concentrations and their interaction [11], and the use of cyanobacterial suspensions as bio-fertilizer [15]. On the other hand, the salinity of irrigation water did not significantly affect the EO quantity and composition, and also apigenin content [93]. In a study, Mavandi et al. carried out a comparison between EOs extracted from six native accessions of Iranian M. chamomilla and two German and Hungarian varieties. The results revealed that the Iranian EOs belonged to three chemotypes: α-bisabolol oxide A, α-bisabolol oxide B, and α-bisabolone oxide A. The EOs from Germany and Hungary belonged to α-bisabolol oxide A chemotype. This study showed the effect of genetic factors on EO composition [12]. In a study on M. chamomilla from 11 countries, Orav et al. reported different compositions depending on geographic regions and environmental factors, with EOs from Germany, Estonia, Greece, Scotland, England, and Latvia dominated by bisabolol oxide A chemotype, EOs from Moldova, Russia, and Czech dominated by α-bisabolol chemotype, EO from Armenia dominated by bisabolol oxide B chemotype, and EO from Ukraine dominated by bisabolone oxide A chemotype [9]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla EO from Australia is composed mainly of bisabolol oxides B and A (27.5 and 27%, respectively) [99]. Furthermore, the chemical composition of commercial EO from USA is characterized by the abundance of trans-β-farnesene (42.59%) [100].
Chromatographic analysis of the chemical composition of M. chamomilla extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, coumarin, and amino acids. In addition, the extracts contain sterols, triterpens, saponins, tannins, and alkaloids [55,101]. The work of Elsemelawy indicated that Egyptian M. chamomilla powder was rich in flavonoids (luteolin O-acylhexoside and quercetin) and phenolic acids (ellagic acid, catechol, and chlorogenic acid) [102]. Another study on aqueous extract showed that the main compounds were also flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, and naringenin) and phenolic acids (benzoic and rosmarinic acids) [53]. In their study on M. chamomilla from Slovakia, Petrul’ová-Poracká et al. reported for the first time the presence of three coumarins in methanolic extract, skimmin (umbelliferone-7-O-β-d-glucoside), daphnin (daphnetin-7-O-β-d-glucoside), and daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) [103]. On the other hand, coumarin, phenolic acid, and flavonoids contents of leaves methanolic extract were influenced by ethephon treatment [17]. In addition, the investigation of Kováčik et al. showed that the phenolic acid content of leaf rosettes was influenced by exposure to cadmium and copper. The mineral content of leaf rosettes and roots was also affected [18]. On the other hand, the results of the methanolic extracts from Iran M. chamomilla showed the highest amounts of luteolin and apigenin [10]. In addition, Sayyar et al. reported n-heptacosane (33.53%), a higher alkane, as the main component of ethanol extract [104]. The HPLC technique was used to determine the caffeoylquinic acid content of 34 samples from different geographical areas of China [105]. The findings showed the presence of six phenolic acids dominated by isochlorogenic acid A. The extract of M. chamomilla can also contain amino acids, such as proline and alanine [106]. M. chamomilla extract from Pakistan showed the dominance of amino acids proline and asparagine [16].
Table 2. Chemical composition of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils and extracts.
Table 2. Chemical composition of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils and extracts.
Country/SourcePart UsedCompounds GroupsMain CompoundsReferences
Essential oils
Morocco Aerial partsTerpenoids
Coumarin
Chamazulene (26.11%), cis-β-farnesene (11.64%), eucalyptol (8.19%), trans-caryophyllene (5.95%), galaxolide (5.31%)
Coumarin (6.01%)
[87]
Egypt Flower Terpenoids α-Bisabolol oxide A (33–50.5%), cis-tonghaosu (10–18.7%), α-bisabolol oxide B (8.2–15.4%), α-bisabolone oxide A (5.4–14.6%), chamazulene (1.9–5.2%)[13]
FlowerTerpenoidsCis-β-Farnesene (27%), D-limonene (15.25%), α-bisabolol oxide A (14.9%)[88]
Turkey FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol (27.36–38.6%), β-farnesene (25.05–30.15%), chamazulene (13.5–13.93%), Germancrene D (4.35–6.11%) [89]
Iran FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol oxide A (29.7–33.7%), chamazulene (18.76–20%), α-bisabolol oxide B (8.881–14.8%), α-bisabolone oxide A (6.64–8.3%), α-bisabolol (0.91–2.01%)[93]
FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol oxide A (37.2–44.5%), α-bisabolone oxide A (11.7–16.5%), trans-β-farnesene (13.3–15.4%), menthol (0–13%), cis-spiroether (5.6–9.9%), α-bisabolol oxide B (3–7.1%)[15]
FlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (7.31–51.31%), bisabolone oxide (8.35–39.97%), bisabolol oxide B (3.18–35.7%), trans-β-farnesene (2.05–19.68%), spathulenol (0–9.46%)[11]
Aerial part Terpenoidsα-Bisabolol (17.51%), cis-trans-farnesol (8.72%), β-bisabolene (8.37%), trans-β-farnesene (5.48%), guaiazulene (4.36%), α-pinene (3.68%), limonene (3.24%)[96]
FlowerTerpenoidsChamazulene (31.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.2%), β-pinene (10.1%), α-pinene (8.14%),
α-bisabolol (7.45%), terpinen-4-ol (4.11%)
[95]
Aerial partTerpenoidsCis-pinocamphone (not detected–73.54%) α-bisabolol oxide A (7.97–62.16%), chamazulene (1.67–15.08%), trans-β-farnesene (1.24–12.87%)[14]
FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolone oxide A (45.64–65.41%), trans-γ-bisabolene (not detected—42.76%), cis-γ-bisabolene (not detected—40.08%), α-bisabolol oxide B (not detected—21.88%), chamazulene (not detected—19.22%)[10]
FlowerTerpenoidsTrans-β-farnesene (24.19%), guaiazulene (10.57%), α-bisabolol oxide A (10.21%),
α-farnesene (8.7%), α-bisabolol (7.27%)
[94]
FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolone oxide A (11.9–63.5%), α-bisabolol oxide A (10.6–37.9%), α-bisabolol oxide B (2.4–23.9%)[12]
Hungary FlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol oxide A (40.7%), chamazulene (14.3%), α-bisabolone oxide A (12.8%),
α-bisabolol oxide B (8.7%)
[12]
GermanyFlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol oxide A (39.1%), α-bisabolone oxide A (17.4%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), cis-Enyne-dicycloether (10.3%)[12]
FlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (54.1%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (19%), bisabolol oxide B (6.7%), bisabolone oxide A (4.5%)[9]
EstoniaFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (27.5–47.9%), bisabolone oxide A (1.6–17.1%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (11.7–14.9%), bisabolol oxide B (9.9–12.3%)[9]
GreeceFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (41.9%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (11.4%), bisabolol oxide B (6.4%)[9]
ScotlandFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (55.6%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (14%), bisabolol oxide B (8%), bisabolone oxide A (7.6%)[9]
EnglandFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (56%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (13.3%), bisabolol oxide B (7.1%), bisabolone oxide A (4.3%)[9]
LatviaFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (51.9%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (13%), bisabolol oxide B (7.5%), trans-β-farnesene (5.3%)[9]
MoldovaFlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol (44.2%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (13.2%), bisabolone oxide A (12.4%), bisabolol oxide A (9.3%), bisabolol oxide B (6.6%)[9]
RussiaFlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol (23.9%), bisabolol oxide A (16.4%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (14.4%), bisabolol oxide B (10.5%), trans-Nerolidol (7.4%)[9]
CzechFlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol (37%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (26.1%), chamazulene (9.8%), trans-β-farnesene (4.5%)[9]
ArmeniaFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide B (27.2%), chamazulene (15.3%), bisabolol oxide A (12.6%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (12.6%), bisabolone oxide A (11.2%)[9]
UkraineFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolone oxide A (24.8%), α-bisabolol (17.1%), bisabolol oxide A (12.3%), bisabolol oxide B (11%), cis-enyne-dicycloether (8.8%)[9]
RomaniaFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide A (70.2%), β-farnesene (6.47%), α-bisabolol oxide B (6.21%), cis-lanceol (5.071%)[90]
BrazilFlowerTerpenoidsα-Bisabolol oxide B (26.08%), β-farnesene (16.35%), bisabolol oxide A (14.7%), α-bisabolol (7.91%)[91]
ItalyAerial partsTerpenoidsCis-tonghaosu (11.8–45.9%), α-bisabolol oxide B (3.7–28.1%), α-bisabolol oxide A (2.7–19%), spathulenol (3.6–12.8%)[92]
AustraliaFlowerTerpenoidsBisabolol oxide B (27.5%), bisabolol oxide A (27%), α-bisabolol (6.6%), cis-spiroether (6.1%), farnesene (4.5%), chamazulene (3.5%), trans-spiroether (0.6%)[99]
USACommercial TerpenoidsTrans-β-Farnesene (42.59%), bisabolol oxide A (21.2%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (8.32%), α-bisabolone oxide A (4.53%), α-bisabolol oxide B (4.43%), germacrene D (2.93%)[100]
Extracts
EgyptFlower and roots
Powder
Flavonoids
Phenolic acids
Luteolin O-acylhexoside (2801.99 ppm), quercetin (1765.01 ppm)
Ellagic acid (1582.81 ppm), catechol (1104.49 ppm), chlorogenic acid (937.48 ppm)
[102]
Flower
Aqueous
Flavonoids
Phenolic acids
Myricetin (1587.82 ppm), quercetin (927.72 ppm), naringenin (400.99 ppm)
Benzoic acid (414.88 ppm), rosmarinic acid (370.59 ppm)
[53]
Slovakia Leaf rosettes Methanol Phenolic acidsFerulic acid (196.8–512.5 μg/g), caffeic acid (66.8–106.1 μg/g), vanillic acid (45.6–71.1 μg/g), chlorogenic acid (12.6–26.2 μg/g), p-coumaric acid (14.4–26.1 μg/g)[18]
Flower or leaves
Methanol
CoumarinE-GMCA (9.82–17.8 mg/g), Z-GMCA (5.84–16.1 mg/g), herniarin (0.41–2.06 mg/g), daphnin (0.142–0.257 mg/g), skimmin (0.13–0.23 mg/g), umbelliferone (0.02–0.06 mg/g), daphnetin (trace-0.02 mg/g)[103]
Leaves
Methanol
Coumarin Phenolic acidsE-GMCA (6.86–9.62 mg/g), Z-GMCA (1.22–6.6 mg/g)
Vanillic acid (29.27–62.46 µg/g), caffeic acid (7.44–14.14 µg/g)
[17]
IranFlower
Methanol
FlavonoidsLuteolin (2.2 mg/g), apigenin (1.19 mg/g)[10]
Not specified
Ethanol
Alkanen-Heptacosane (33.53%), 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (16.71%), 1,2,2-trimethylcyclopropylamine (13.76%), 7-methoxy-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro (6.13%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (5.99%), Phenol, 4-(2-aminoethyl) (5.26%), hex-5-enylamine (4.48), 3-fluorophenethylamine (0.2%)[104]
PakistanNot specified AqueousAmino acidsl-Proline (185 mg/mL), l-asparagine (97 mg/mL), aminobutyric acid (52 mg/mL), l-aspartic acid (45 mg/mL), l-alanine (43 mg/mL), l-glutamic acid (42 mg/mL)[16]
ChinaRoots, stems,
Leaves
70% aqueous methanol
Caffeoylquinic acidsIsochlorogenic acid A (0.1–5.15 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (0.03–4.08 mg/g), isochlorogenic acid C (0.06–3.17 mg/g), isochlorogenic acid B (0.03–2.45 mg/g), neochlorogenic acid (0.02–1.68 mg/g), cryptochlorogenic acid (0.005–0.33 mg/g)[105]
Flower AqueousAmino acidsProline (4.24 mg/g), alanine (3.79 mg/g), isoleucine + leucine (2.59 mg/g), arginine + threonine (2.53 mg/g)[106]

4. Pharmacological Interest

4.1. Antioxidant Activity

Several studies have investigated the antioxidant activity of M. chamomilla EO, extracts, and cell suspension culture (Table 3). These researches were carried out by several tests, including DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching, ferrous ion chelating ability, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The enzyme activities were also assessed for catalase, acetylcholine esterase, glutathione, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.
DPPH assay is the most widely used to assess antioxidant activity. Using this test, M. chamomilla EOs showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity after 90 min of reaction [107]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla EOs had less activity than the used standards BHT and α-tocopherol in both DPPH and β-carotene bleaching tests, while it showed a comparable ferrous ion chelating ability than the citric acid standard [108]. The ABTS test was used to investigate the antioxidant power of EOs obtained by different extraction techniques (steam stripping, hydrodistillation, steam-dragging distillation with simultaneous steam extraction using an organic solvent, maceration, and supercritical fluid extraction) [109]. The results varied depending on the extraction technique, with the steam stripping technique providing the higher antioxidant activity in ABTS assay. This observation could be explained by the variation of EOs’ chemical composition depending on the extraction methods.
In another study on 13 cultivated M. chamomilla, the EOs and methanol extracts exhibited an interesting antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP assays [92]. This activity varied depending on the environmental factors and the chemical composition. Indeed, the highest activity was obtained by EOs rich in oxygenated compounds and extracts with high phenolic content. Comparing EOs and extracts, the authors reported higher DPPH activity from extracts, while both had similar activity using the FRAP test. Moreover, ABTS assay was used to study the antioxidant activity of two extracts (ethyl acetate extract and aqueous extract) from different plant parts (flower, leaf, stem, and root) [110]. The results showed that hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) was significantly higher than the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA).
Abdoul-Latif et al., using the DPPH test, found that methanolic extract exhibited higher activity than EO, while EO showed a higher relative antioxidant activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid assay [111]. Other studies also showed the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract [46,112]. In addition, the activity varied depending on plant organ/tissue used, with separated parts exhibiting sometimes higher activity than whole herb [113]. On the other hand, Munir et al. [114] reported higher antioxidant activity with methanolic extract compared to ethanolic extract using DPPH assay, showing the role of extraction solvent in the antioxidant activity [114]. In the same way, Roby et al. found that methanol extract had the strongest DPPH scavenging activity, followed closely by ethanol, then diethyl ether and hexane extracts [115]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla ethanolic extract was also able to scavenge DPPH radicals [49,116]. Using also DPPH assay, Molnar et al. found that hydroethanolic extract obtained from processing waste fraction using maceration method exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other extracts from processed chamomile flowers first class, unprocessed chamomile flowers first class, and pulvis [20]. This shows that extract obtained from waste can also exhibit interesting antioxidant capacity. In addition, Cvetanović et al. investigated the antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by several extraction techniques (microwave-assisted, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) using two solvents (ethanol and water) compared to subcritical water extraction [117]. In general, subcritical water extract had the strongest DPPH scavenging capacity and ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ compared to other extracts. Furthermore, the temperature selected during subcritical water extraction had an influence on the antioxidant power of M. chamomilla aqueous extracts [118]. Extracts obtained at a temperature of 210 °C demonstrated the strongest DPPH activity, while extraction at 150 °C gave extracts with the highest ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition. In the same way, Sotiropoulou et al. [119] investigated the effect of extraction temperature (25, 80, and 100 °C) on aqueous extracts’ DPPH capacity. The results showed that the extract at 80 °C had the highest activity, while no activity was reported by extract prepared at 25 °C. These results can be explained by the highest phenol content obtained at 80 °C compared to other temperatures. Indeed, high temperatures can allow the extraction of more polyphenols, but extremely high temperatures (100 °C) can lead to the loss of unstable ones. In addition, using a multivariate approach, Pereira et al. investigated the effect of several extraction parameters on the antioxidant capacity of hydroalcoholic extract obtained by dynamic maceration process. The results showed that extraction temperature, ratio of plant to solvent, and ethanol strength were the factors that exhibited most influence on the extract. Using the optimal conditions, the authors found that the extract was rich in flavonoids, apigenin, and apigenin-7-glycoside, and had high antioxidant activity close to the predicted results [120].
The enzymatic treatment of M. chamomilla aqueous infusion by hesperidinase and β-galactosidase led to a small increase in the percentage of DPPH radical-scavenging activity even though several phenolic compounds were altered by the treatment [121]. Using chicken liver tissue, Singh et al. found that M. chamomilla tea extract exhibited great antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation tests [122]. In addition, the lipid peroxidation inhibition was influenced by treatment with electron beam irradiation [123]. Indeed, this treatment used for plant microbial decontamination caused a decrease of antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent way. This result was explained by the decrease of plant chemical compounds content, including flavonoid, tannins, and polyphenolcarboxylic acids. On the other hand, Hassanpour and Niknam found that the treatment of M. chamomilla cell suspension culture with a static magnetic field ameliorated its antioxidant activity and flavonoid metabolism [124]. Moreover, cells culture under clino-rotation induced antioxidant enzyme activity leading to growth and cell division [19]. Consequently, the parameters of cell culture also influence the antioxidant activity.
M. chamomilla EOs and extracts possess antioxidant activity that allows their use to prevent or treat diseases. In male Wistar rats, the intake of hydroalcoholic extract prevented the increase of superoxide dismutase globule and plasma malondialdehyde caused by a high cholesterol diet [125]. Additionally, in diabetic rats, the treatment with 10 and 20% M. chamomilla powder significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased catalase, acetylcholine esterase, and glutathione levels in serum [19].
Table 3. Studies/investigations on antioxidant activity of M. chamomilla essential oils, extracts, and other.
Table 3. Studies/investigations on antioxidant activity of M. chamomilla essential oils, extracts, and other.
Part UsedMain ComponentExperimental MethodKey ResultsReferences
Essential oils
Leaves Not specifiedDPPH
β-carotene-linoleic acid assay
IC50 = 4.18 µg/mL
Relative antioxidant activity = 12.69%
[111]
Leaves and flowers Enyne-dicycloether (36.13–47.6%)
Bisabolol oxide A (47.1%)
β-Farnesene (30.2–37.62%)
ABTSTEAC = 13.81–27.56 μmol TE/mL[109]
Flower α-Bisabolone oxide A (35.74%)DPPH
Ferrous ion chelating ability
β-carotene bleaching
IC50 = 793.89 µg/mL
IC50 = 1448.68 µg/mL
34.21%
[108]
Flower Trans-β-Farnesene (29.8%)DPPHEC50 = 2.07 mg/mL[107]
Aerial parts Cis-tonghaosu (11.8–45.9%)
α-Bisabolol oxide B (3.7–28.1%)
DPPH
FRAP
TEAC = ~30–273.5 μmol TE/100 g DW
TEAC = ~35–657.1 µmol TE/100 g DW
[92]
Extracts
Aerial parts
Methanol
Phenol content
(~390–2689.2 mg GAE/100 g)
DPPH
FRAP
TEAC = ~260–881.1 µmol TE/100 g DW
TEAC = 137.2–1200.3 µmol TE/100 g DW
[92]
Flower
Ethyl acetate
Na phosphate buffer
Leaf
Ethyl acetate
Na phosphate buffer
Stem
Ethyl acetate
Na phosphate buffer
Root
Ethyl acetate
Na phosphate buffer
Phenol content
11.29 mg GAE/g DW
21.78 mg GAE/g DW


9.21 mg GAE/g DW
10.56 mg GAE/g DW


8.13 mg GAE/g DW
13.45 mg GAE/g DW


4.16 mg GAE/g DW
4.41 mg GAE/g DW
ABTS
LAA = 3.51 mg TE/g DW
HAA = 17.57 mg TE/g DW


LAA = 1.47 mg TE/g DW
HAA = 9.28 mg TE/g DW


LAA = 1.49 mg TE/g DW
HAA = 12.27 mg TE/g DW


LAA = 1.48 mg TE/g DW
HAA = 18.02 mg TE/g DW
[110]
Roots
Methanol
Ethanol
Not specified DPPH IC50 = 82.8%
IC50 = 37.67%
[114]
Flower
70% ethanol
Water
Phenol content
(117.31–151.45 mg CAE/mL)
DPPH
Reducing power
IC50 = 0.0211–0.0606 mg/mL
EC50 = 0.578–0.922 mg/mL
[118]
Flower
Water
Apigenin (231–1501 mg/kg) Luteolin-7-O-glucoside
(166–1101 mg/kg)
ABTS
DPPH
Hydroxyl radical scavenging
Lipid peroxidation inhibition
IC50 = 7.3–16.8 µg/mL
IC50 = 10–45 µg/mL
IC50 = 38.1–43.1 µg/mL
IC50 = 28.7–35 µg/mL
[118]
Plant material
Water
Not specifiedDPPH41.3–49.5%[121]
Flowering plant
Ethanol
Phenol content
(284.6 ± 16 mg GAE/g DW)
DPPHIC50 = 56.4 µg/mL[49]
Flower
Methanol
Ethanol
Diethyl ether
Hexane
Phenol content
(3.7 mg GAE/g DW)
(3.5 mg GAE/g DW)
(3.3 mg GAE/g DW)
(2.4 mg GAE/g DW)
DPPHEC50 = 0.0022 µmol
EC50 = 0.0026 µmol
EC50 = 0.0039 µmol
EC50 = 0.0041 µmol
[116]
Aerial parts
Ethanol (70%)
Phenol content
(78.4 mg GAE/g DW)
DPPHIC50 = 50 µg/mL[116]
Leaves
Methanol
Not specifiedDPPHIC50 = 65.8 μg/mL[112]
Whole herb
Stem
Flower
Methanol
Phenol content
Whole herb (37.1 mg/kg DW)
Stem (23.6 mg/kg DW)
Flower (31.9 mg/kg DW)
DPPHWhole herb: IC50 ~2.5 μg/mL
Stem: IC50 ~2.4 μg/mL
Flower: IC50 ~2.35 μg/mL
[113]
Linoleic acid emulsion (30 h)Whole herb: 63%
Stem: 69%
Flower: 60%
FRAP Whole herb: absorbance ~1.8
Stem: absorbance ~0.88
Flower: absorbance ~0.9
Ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating capacity Whole herb: 73%
Stem: 67%
Flower: 85%
Superoxide radical scavenging activityWhole herb: IC50 = 2.1 μg/mL
Stem: IC50 = 2.8 μg/mL
Flower: IC50 = 2.2 μg/mL
Leaves
Methanol
Not specifiedDPPH
β-carotene-linoleic acid assay
IC50 = 1.83 µg/mL
Relative antioxidant activity = 11.37%
[111]
Flower
Ethanol 50%
Umbelliferone content (11.80 mg/100 g)
Herniarin content (82.79 mg/100 g)
DPPH45.4–61.5%[20]
Flowering parts
Water
Phenol content
(0.041- 0.165 mg GAE/mL)
DPPH Inhibition = 2.53–4.62 µg TE/mL [119]
Inflorescences
Ethanol (74.7%)
Flavonoid content
(4.11%)
DPPHIC50 = 18.19 µg/mL[120]
Flower
Methanol (80%)
Phenol content
(656.1 mg GAE/g FR)
DPPH
FRAP
IC50 = 84.2 μg/mL
IC50 = 13 mmol Fe+2/100 g
[46]
Flower
Water
Phenol content
(0.207 mg GAE/g)
Lipid peroxidation inhibitionInhibition = 44.15%[122]
Inflorescence
Not specified
Flavonoid content
(66.2–35.6 mg/g)
Lipid peroxidation inhibitionInhibition = 10–100%[123]
Whole Plant
Ethanol 80%
Not specifiedSuperoxide dismutase
Malondialdehyde
~2.2–3.1 U/mL plasma
~112–126 μmol
[125]
Flower and root
Powder
Luteolin O-acylhexoside
(2801.99 ppm)
Lipid peroxidation inhibition
Catalase
Acetylcholine esterase
Glutathione
291.35–301.67 nmol
63.14–68.33 nmol
4.65–5.46 nmol
11.2–13.2 mg/g
[102]
Other
Cell suspension culture Phenol content
(5.54–9.51 mg GAE/g DW)
DPPH
Peroxidase
Superoxide dismutase
Ascorbate peroxidase
Inhibition = 55.1–76.72%
~2.75–3.75 unite/mg protein
~0.27–0.43 unite/mg protein
~2000–5000 unite/mg protein
[124]
Cell suspension culture Total soluble sugar
(63.71–96.04 mg/g FW)
Peroxidase
Superoxide dismutase
Catalase
~4.5–8 unite/mg FW
~0.5–0.75 unite/mg FW
~0.002–0.008 unite/mg FW
[19]

4.2. Antibacterial Activity

The antibacterial efficacy of M. chamomilla EOs and extracts was investigated by several studies (Table 4). Generally, the agar diffusion technique, using discs or wells, is the most used to screen the antibacterial activity of EOs and extracts. Using this technique, Stanojevic et al. [107] reported the antibacterial activity of M. chamomilla EO. The most sensitive strain was Staphylococcus aureus, while the most resistant one was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Similarly, Owlia et al. [22] reported no activity against P. aeruginosa using the disc diffusion technique. However, the EO was able to reduce biofilm formation and alginate production, showing efficiency in controlling biofilm-producing bacteria. On the other hand, results of both diffusion and dilution techniques showed that Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive bacteria to M. chamomilla EO from Morocco [87]. In addition, the EO showed the largest inhibition zone against B. cereus and the smallest MIC and MBC values against S. aureus [97]. Gram-positive bacteria also showed the smallest MIC values, as found by Silva et al. [126]. These results could be explained by differences in the cell wall structure since Gram-negative bacteria have a complex and rigid membrane rich in lipopolysaccharide, which limits the access of antimicrobial molecules [127]. In addition, the antibacterial activity of M. chamomilla EO was also reported against several Streptococcus species [128]. The commercial EO also showed antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria [129]. The results showed that the EO was more active against S. aureus MRSA compared to reference strains. On the other hand, P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive bacteria in both diffusion and micro-dilution assays [108,111], showing that Gram-negative bacteria could be more sensitive to EO compared to Gram-positive strains. In addition, Shakya et al. [130] found that M. chamomilla flower EO significantly reduced Enterococcus faecalis growth. More interestingly, Satyal et al. [131] reported that M. chamomilla EO exhibited the strongest activity against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. In addition, Hartmann and Onofre [132] reported the smallest MIC values against Escherichia coli, while no activity was found against P. aeruginosa. The largest inhibition zone was obtained against S. aureus, with the highest results when the EO was used without dilution (100%). Other factors can influence EO antibacterial activity, including plant origin, as found by Höferl et al. [27]. Indeed, the highest activity (MIC = 2000 µg/mL) was obtained against most bacteria by EO from South Africa (18.7% trans-β-farnesene) and Hungary (38.3% α-bisabolol).
Comparing the antibacterial activity of M. chamomilla EO and four extracts, Roby et al. [115] found that EO had the highest activity against all tested bacteria. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing concentrations of both EO and extracts. Among tested extracts, diethyl ether extract had the lowest activity, showing the effect of extraction solvent on antibacterial activity. Similarly, Ismail et al. [133] found that methanol and ethanol extracts studied at different concentrations were only active at the highest concentration and only against S. aureus. In addition, the aqueous extract was inactive against all strains at all tested concentrations. On the contrary, the aqueous extract was the strongest extract against most strains studied by Boudıeb et al. [134], except Pseudomonas sp., which was more sensitive to methanol extract. In their study on methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate extracts, Abdalla and Abdelgadir [101] found that petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest activity (diameter-Φ between 22 and 26 mm) while ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against all tested bacteria. On the other hand, the study of Mariod et al. [135] on methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts from Sudanese and Egyptian M. chamomilla confirmed the effect of extraction solvent and plant origin on antibacterial activity. Indeed, Sudanese methanolic extract showed the highest activity, with better effect against S. aureus (W17) at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL. In another study, ethyl acetate extract exhibited a higher inhibitory effect against Helicobacter pylori compared to ethanol extract [136]. In addition, MBC values varied depending on ethanol percentage used (MBC = 125 µg/mL with ethanol 99.8%). On the other hand, ethanolic extract was only active against P. aeruginosa, while cyclohexane extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria [137].
Several studies reported the antibacterial activity of M. chamomilla ethanolic extracts [117,138,139,140]. The results varied depending on the organ used [23,24,25]. Indeed, among 24 S. aureus MRSA studied, ethanolic extracts from flowers had an activity on 20 strains compared to 7 for leaf extracts [23]. The same results were found by Ahani Azari and Danesh [24] against MRSA strains. However, the authors found that ethanolic extract from leaves was the only one active against P. aeruginosa multidrug-resistant (16 strains). These findings were similar to the one found by Poudineh et al. [25]. On the other hand, methanol extracts also showed antibacterial activity [46,111,141,142]. The extract also exhibited an anti-adherence activity against all tested strains [26]. In addition, aqueous extracts have also demonstrated antibacterial activity [143,144] that varied depending on the plant organ used [145].
Table 4. Studies/investigations on in vitro antibacterial activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils and extracts.
Table 4. Studies/investigations on in vitro antibacterial activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils and extracts.
Part UsedMain ComponentExperimental MethodTested OrganismKey ResultsReferences
Essential oils
Leaves Not specifiedDisc diffusion Micro-dilutionGram-positive
Bacillus cereus LMG 13569
Listeria innocua LMG 1135668
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9244
Staphylococcus camorum LMG 13567
Streptococcus pyogenes
Gram-negative
Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907
Escherichia coli CIP 11609
Salmonella enterica CIP 105150
Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451
Proteus mirabilis 104588 CIP
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Φ = 17 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 4 µg/mL
Φ = 20 mm; MIC = 2; MBC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 21 mm; MIC = 2; MBC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 22 mm; MIC = 2; MBC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 24 mm; MIC = 2; MBC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 14 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 8 µg/mL
Φ = 14 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 8 µg/mL
Φ = 20 mm; MIC = 2; MBC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 25 mm; MIC = 1; MBC = 1 µg/mL
Φ = 17 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 4 µg/mL
Φ = 30 mm; MIC = 1; MBC = 1 µg/mL
[111]
Aerial partsChamazulene (26.11%) Disc diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus subtilis
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli (ATB:57) B6N
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Φ = 14.13 mm; MIC = 8.33 µL/mL
Φ = 15.2 mm; MIC = 6.25 µL/mL

Φ = 13.27 mm; MIC = 8.33 µL/mL
Φ = 13.07 mm; MIC = 8.33 µL/mL
[87]
FlowerNot specifiedDisc diffusion
(0.78–100%)
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-25923
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC-25922
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC

Φ = 8.55–38.34 mm; MIC = 6.25%

Φ = 9.31–12.32 mm; MIC = 1.56%
No inhibition
[132]
Aerial parts (95% flowers) Trans-β-farnesene (18.7–38.5%)
α-Bisabolol (38.3%)
α-Bisabolol oxide A (25%)
Macro-dilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
Salmonella abony ATCC 6017
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027

MBC = 2000–8000 µg/mL

MBC = 2000–8000 µg/mL
MBC = 2000–8000 µg/mL
MBC = 4000–8000 µg/mL
[27]
Aerial parts α-Bisabolol oxide (38%)Disc diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus subtilis
Gram-negative
Shigella shiga
Shigella sonnei
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Proteus sp.

Φ = 30 mm; MIC = 0.011; MBC = 0.13 µg/mL
Φ = 36 mm; MIC = 0.022; MBC = 1.5 µg/mL
Φ = 32 mm; MIC = 0.03; MBC = 1.5 µg/mL

Φ = 25 mm; MIC = 0.14; MBC = 3 µg/mL
Φ = 19 mm; MIC = 0.2; MBC = 3 µg/mL
Φ = 19 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 8 µg/mL
Φ = 16 mm; MIC = 0.15; MBC = 3 µg/mL
[97]
Flower α-Bisabolone oxide A (35.74%)Disc diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 14506
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883
Proteus vulgaris ATCC 33420
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853

Φ = 71.59%; MIC = 0. 25 mg/mL
Φ = 106.7%; MIC = 0.12 mg/mL

Φ = 99.66%; MIC = 0.17 mg/mL
Φ = 75.04%; MIC = 0.15 mg/mL
Φ = 89.15%; MIC = 0.21 mg/mL
Φ = 108.77%; MIC = 0.04 mg/mL
[108]
Flower Guaiazulene (25.6%)(0.2–0.5 µg/mL) Disc diffusion
Biofilm formation and adherence assay
Quantitative assay of alginate
Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8821M
No inhibition
Biofilm production = 0.17–0.64 µg/mL
Alginate production = 190.33–549.33 µg/mL
[129]
Flower Guaiazulene (25.6%)Disc diffusion
Macro-dilution
Gram-positive
Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447
Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1601
Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448
Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
Streptococcus sanguis PTCC 1449
Φ = 9 mm; MIC = 0.1; MBC = 0.2 µg/mL
Φ = 10 mm; MIC = 0.5; MBC = 1.5 µg/mL
Φ = 9 mm; MIC = 0.5; MBC = 0.8 µg/mL
Φ = 0.8 mm; MIC = 4; MBC = 7 µg/mL
Φ = 8 mm; MIC = 0.5; MBC = 1 µg/mL
[129]
Commercial Bisabolol and trans-β-farneseneMacro-dilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcusaureus MRSA (16 strains)
Staphylococcus aureus (2 ATCC strains)
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228
Enterococci faecalis ATCC 51299
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (9 strains)

MIC = 2–>4; MBC = 2–>4%
MIC = MBC >4%
MIC = MBC >4%
MIC = MBC >4%
MIC = MBC >4%
[129]
Aerial parts Trans-β-farnesene (42.2%)Micro-dilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213
Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 10798
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

MIC = 313 μg/mL
MIC = 625 μg/mL

MIC = 625 μg/mL
MIC = 313 μg/mL
[131]
Flower Not specifiedDisc diffusion
Broth dilution
Ex vivo
Gram-negative
Enterococcusfaecalis
Reduction = 2.91 CFU at day 14 [130]
Flower Trans-β-Farnesene (29.8%)Disc diffusionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus WDCM 00032
Listeria monocytogenes WDCM 00020
Salmonella enterica WDCM 00030
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli WDCM 00013
Pseudomonas aeruginosa WDCM 00024
Φ = 40 mm
Φ = 13.33 mm
Φ = 25 mm
Φ = 31 mm
No inhibition
[130]
Not specified Chamazulene
(31.48%)
Micro-dilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus (16 strains)
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli (16 strains)

MIC 90% = 2.9 mg/mL

MIC 90% = 28.2 mg/mL
[126]
Flower α-Bisabolol oxide A (48.22%)Disc diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli O157 ATCC 1659
Salmonella typhi ATCC 13076

Φ ~12–22 mm; MIC = 10 µg/mL
Φ ~12–26 mm; MIC = 10 µg/mL

Φ ~7–19.5 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Φ ~10–21 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
[116]
Extracts
Commercial
Aerial parts
Methanol
Ethanol
Petroleum ether
Not specifiedWell diffusionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923


Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236


Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922


Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

Methanol: No inhibition
Ethanol: Φ = 19 mm
Petroleum ether: Φ = 25 mm
Methanol: Φ = 17 mm
Ethanol: Φ = 17 nm
Petroleum ether: Φ = 26 mm

Methanol: Φ = 17 mm
Ethanol: Φ = 20 mm
Petroleum ether: Φ = 23 mm
Methanol: Φ = 17 mm
Ethanol: Φ = 18 mm
Petroleum ether: Φ = 22 mm
[101]
Flower EthanolNot specifiedBroth microdilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (30 strains)

MIC = 64–128 μg/mL
[140]
Leaves MethanolNot specifiedDisc diffusion Micro-dilutionGram-positive
Bacillus cereus LMG 13569
Listeria innocua LMG 1135668
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9244
Staphylococcus camorum LMG 13567
Streptococcus pyogenes
Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli CIP 11609
Salmonella enteric CIP 105150
Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451
Proteus mirabilis 104588 CIP
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Φ = 17 mm; MIC = 100; MBC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 20 mm; MIC = 100; MBC ˃ 100 µg/mL
Φ = 16 mm; MIC = 100; MBC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 19 mm; MIC = 100; MBC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 18 mm; MIC = 25; MBC = 50 µg/mL
Φ = 13 mm; MIC = 100; MBC = 100 µg/mL

Φ = 17 mm; MIC = 25; MBC = 25 µg/mL
Φ = 17 mm; MIC = 100; MBC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 22 mm; MIC = 25; MBC = 25 µg/mL
Φ = 15 mm; MIC = 50; MBC = 50 µg/mL
Φ = 20 mm; MIC = 25; MBC = 25 µg/mL
[111]
Flower
Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(3.12–50 mg/mL)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (14 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (6 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27,853 and multidrug-resistant (16 strains)

Φ = 10.3–12.7 mm at 25–50 mg/mL
MIC = 6.25; MBC = 12.5 mg/mL
Φ = 12.3 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
Φ = 12.1 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL

No inhibition
[24]
Leaves
Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(3.12–50 mg/mL)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (7 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27,853 and multidrug-resistant (16 strains)

Φ = 10.1 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
Φ = 9.8 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC–MBC > 50 mg/mL

No zone; MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
[24]
Flower
Ethanol
Phenylindolizine (32.82%)Well diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Gram-negative
Enterococcus faecalis
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
Enterobacter cloacae
Acinetobacter baumannii

Φ = 15 mm; MIC = 6.75 mg/mL
Inhibition

Inhibition
Inhibition
No inhibition
No inhibition
No inhibition
[139]
Leaves and flower
Methanol

Aqueous

Chloroform
Phenol content
13.11 mg GAE/g DW
23.96 mg GAE/g DW
9.68 mg GAE/g DW
Disc diffusion Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538


Bacillus sp.


Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 4157


Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 9027

Methanol: Φ = 6 mm
Aqueous: Φ = 10 mm
Chloroform: No inhibition
Methanol: Φ = 9.66 mm
Aqueous: Φ = 11.66 mm
Chloroform: Φ = 9.33 mm

Methanol: Φ = 6 mm
Aqueous: Φ = 10.66 mm
Chloroform: No inhibition
Methanol: Φ = 22.5 mm
Aqueous: Φ = 9 mm
Chloroform: Φ = 10.33 mm
[134]
Flower
Ethanol
Cyclohexane
Not specifiedDisc diffusion Broth dilutionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922
Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028

No inhibition

Ethanol: Φ = 10 mm; MIC = 1000 mg/mL
No inhibition
No inhibition
[137]
Flower
Ethanol
Phenol content
(151.45 mg CAE/mL)
Micro-dilutionGram-positive
Escherichia coli
MIC = 39.1 µg/mL[118]
Not specified
Methanol
4-Amino- 1,5-pentandioic acidWell diffusion
(50 µL)
Gram-negative
Proteus mirabilis
Φ = 6.01 mm[141]
Not specified
Methanol
Ethanol
Aqueous
Not specifiedWell diffusion (250–1000 mg/mL) Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus

Gram-negative
Escherichia coli
Proteus sp.
Klebsiella sp.

Methanol: Φ = 12 mm at 1000 mg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 15 mm at 1000 mg/mL

No inhibition
No inhibition
No inhibition
[133]
Flower
Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(10–100 μg/mL)
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus
Φ = 0–28 mm [138]
Not specified
Methanol
Phenol contents (1.24 mg GAE/g)Disc-diffusion
Macro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 7443
Streptococcus mutans MTCC 497
Streptococcus mitis MTCC 2695
Streptococcus oralis MTCC 2696 Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC 10307
Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7453

Φ = 16.2 mm; MIC = 3.12 µg/mL
Φ = 19.8 mm; MIC = 0.39 µg/mL
Φ = 16.7 mm; MIC = 3.12 µg/mL
Φ = 16.03 mm; MIC = 3.12 µg/mL
Φ = 9.8 mm; MIC = 0.39 µg/mL

No inhibition
[26]
Flower
Ethanol (70, 96, 99.8%)
Ethyl acetate
Not specifiedMicro-dilutionGram-negative
Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504

Ethanol: MIC = 62.5; MBC = 125–250 µg/mL
Ethyl acetate: MIC = 31.3; MBC = 125 µg/mL
[136]
Not specified
Methanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(12.5–200 mg/mL)
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains)
Enterococcus faecalis (3 strains)
Enterococcus durans Sp. 33
Gram-negative
Proteus mirabilis (3 strains)
Salmonella S7
Serratia U11
Providensia alcalifaciens
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Φ = 9–19 mm at 50–200 mg/mL
Φ = 9.5–14 mm at 100–200 mg/mL
Φ = 10–13 mm at 100–200 mg/mL

Φ = 8–16 mm at 100–200 mg/mL
Φ = 8–13 mm at 50–200 mg/mL
Φ = 12 mm at 200 mg/mL
Φ = 8–12 mm at 100–200 mg/mL
Φ = 8 mm at 200 mg/mL
[135]
Flower
Methanol
Phenol contents (656.1 mg CAE/g FR)Diffusion
(50 mg/mL)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 p
Streptococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228
Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027

Φ = 1.3 mm; MIC = 62.5 μg/mL
Φ = 1 mm; MIC = 125 μg/mL

Φ = 0.3 mm; MIC = 500 μg/mL
[46]
Aerial parts
Aqueous
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(5–40 mg/mL)
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli

Φ = 0.6–3.55 mm

Φ = 0.6–3.6 mm
[143]
Stems
Leaves Aqueous
Not specifiedDisc diffusionGram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus

Bacillus subtilis

Gram-negative
Escherichia coli

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Stems: Φ = 22.7 mm
Leaves: Φ = 21.8 mm
Stems: Φ = 9.2 mm
Leaves: Φ = 23.9 mm

Stems: Φ = 9.9 mm
Leaves: Φ = 23.7 mm
Stems: Φ = 27.4 mm
Leaves: Φ = 24.9 mm
[145]
Leaves
Flower Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrug-resistant
Leaves: No zone
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
Flowers: No inhibition
[25]
Not specified
Aqueous
Not specifiedDisc diffusion
(15–25%)
Gram-positive
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 24212
Φ = 20.62 mm at 25%[144]
Flower
Methanol Ethanol
Hexane
Diethyl ether
Phenol content
(3.7 mg GAE/g)
(3.5 mg GAE/g)
(2.4 mg GAE/g)
(3.3 mg GAE/g)
Disc diffusion
(7.5–20 µg/disc)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778



Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 13565



Gram-negative
Escherichia coli O157 ATCC 1659



Salmonella typhi ATCC 13076

Methanol: Φ = 9–20 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 10–20 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 9–21 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Diethyl ether: Φ = 7–18 mm; MIC=15 µg/mL
Methanol: Φ = 11–19 mm; MIC=12.5 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 13–23 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 10–23 mm; MIC = 10 µg/mL
Diethyl ether: Φ = 8–19 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL

Methanol: Φ = 8–18 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 9–19 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 8–19 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Diethyl ether: Φ = 7–15 mm; MIC = 17.5 µg/mL
Methanol: Φ = 11–20 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 8–17 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 8–19 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL Diethyl ether: Φ = 6–16 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
[115]
Flower
Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(3.12–50 mg/mL)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (14 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (6 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Φ = 10.3–12.7 mm at 25–50 mg/mL
MIC = 6.25; MBC = 12.5 mg/mL
Φ = 12.3 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
Φ = 12.1 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
[23]
Leaves
Ethanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
(3.12–50 mg/mL)
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (7 strains)

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

Φ = 10.1 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC = 12.5; MBC = 25 mg/mL
Φ = 9.8 mm at 50 mg/mL
MIC–MBC > 50 mg/mL
[23]
Leaves
Methanol
Not specifiedWell diffusion
Micro-dilution
Gram-positive
Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P
Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736
Kocuria sp KM 24375
Gram-negative
Escherichia coli ATCC 8739
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027

Φ = 6 mm; MIC = 0.156 mg/mL
No inhibition
No inhibition
No inhibition

No inhibition
No inhibition
[142]

4.3. Antifungal Activity

The antifungal activities of EOs and extracts obtained from different parts of M. chamomilla have been reported in the literature, suggesting great efficacy against a variety of fungal strains (Table 5). Most studies investigated the effect of M. chamomilla EO on Candida sp. Höferl et al. found that EOs from different origins were able to inhibit C. albicans growth with MFC = 2000 µg/mL, except EOs obtained from cultivated Indian plants dominated by α-bisabolol oxide A (25%), which showed MFC of 4000 µg/mL [27]. This reflects the influence of plant origin and EO chemical composition on antifungal activity. In addition, fluconazole-resistant and susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis were inhibited by M. chamomilla EO, with a better effect on susceptible strains [146]. Other studies proved that C. albicans is more sensitive to EO than Aspergillus sp. [111,131]. Moreover, EL-Hefny et al. [88] found that EO antifungal activity was dose-dependent, with the best results against A. niger. Similar to their results on antibacterial activity, Mekonnen et al. reported no effect of M. chamomilla EO from Ethiopia on two Aspergillus sp. and two Trichophyton sp. Strains [147].
Comparing the antifungal capacity of M. chamomilla EO and extracts, Abdoul-Latif et al. [111] found that EO had better activity than methanolic extract. On the other hand, Roby et al. found that EOs and different extracts (methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, and hexane) had a dose-dependent activity [115]. Among chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts, only chloroform showed antifungal activity (Φ = 6 mm) against C. albicans and Fusarium sp. [134]. This shows the effect of extracts on antifungal activity. In another study, Hameed et al. found that methanolic plant extract had an activity on A. terreus [141], while Lavanya et al. reported no activity against four Candida sp. (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) [26]. On the other hand, ethanolic flower extract also showed an antifungal activity [117]. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla caused a significant decrease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and cell survival [148]. In addition, aqueous extracts also showed antifungal activity [143,144]. On the other hand, seed aqueous extracts obtained at different pH (acidic, neutral, and alkaline) exhibited the same antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum [149]. In addition, their sulfated derivatives exhibited a close antifungal activity even though they had higher phenolic content. In another study, Seyedjavadi et al. [150] isolated a novel peptide (AMP1) from M. chamomilla, with antifungal activity against C. albicans and Aspergillus sp. This shows that M. chamomilla can be source of interesting antifungal molecules.
Table 5. Studies/investigations on in vitro antifungal activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils, extracts, and other.
Table 5. Studies/investigations on in vitro antifungal activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils, extracts, and other.
Part UsedMain ComponentExperimental MethodTested OrganismKey ResultsReferences
Essential Oil
Leaves Not specified Disc diffusion Micro-dilutionCandida albicans ATCC 10231
Candida albicans
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus sp.
Φ = 20 mm; MIC = MFC = 1 µg/mL
Φ = 19 mm; MIC = MFC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 17 mm; MIC = MFC = 2 µg/mL
Φ = 14 mm; MIC = 16; MFC > 16 µg/mL
[111]
FlowerCis-β-farnesene (27%)Agar dilution
(25–100 µL/mL)
Aspergillus flavus AFl375
Aspergillus niger FC24771
Aspergillus terreus Y.H. Yeh V0103
Fusarium culmorum CBS 128537
Φ = 10.66–52.33%
Φ = 89.66–100%
Φ = 87–84%
Φ = 91–86.66%
[88]
Aerial parts (95% flowers)Trans-β-farnesene (18.7–38.5%)
α-Bisabolol (38.3%)
α-Bisabolol oxide A (25%)
Macro-dilutionCandida albicans ATCC 10231MFC = 2000–4000 µg/mL[27]
Flower α-Bisabolol oxide A (48.22%)Disc diffusion
(7.5–20 µg/disc)
Micro-dilution
Candida albicans ATCC 10231
Aspergillus flavus ATCC 16875
Φ ~14–26 mm; MIC = 19 µg/mL
Φ ~9–23 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
[115]
Aerial partsTrans-β-farnesene (42.2%)Micro-dilutionCandida albicans ATCC 10231
Aspergillus niger ATCC 16888
MIC = 313 μg/mL
MIC = 625 μg/mL
[131]
Flowerα-Pinene (22.10%)Broth dilution Candida albicans (30 resistant)
Candida albicans (30 susceptible)
MIC = 1700; MFC = 2300 μg/mL
MIC = 1550; MFC = 2200 μg/mL
[146]
Extracts
Leaves MethanolNot specified Disc diffusion Micro-dilutionCandida albicans ATCC 10231
Candida albicans
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus sp.
Φ = 15 mm; MIC = MFC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 15 mm; MIC = MFC = 100 µg/mL
Φ = 14 mm; MIC = 100; MFC > 100 µg/mL
Φ = 13 mm; MIC = 200; MFC > 200 µg/mL
[111]
Leaves and flower
Methanol
Aqueous
Chloroform
PhenolsDisc diffusionCandida albicans ATCC 24433

Fusarium sp.
Chloroform: Φ = 6 mm
Other extracts: No inhibition
Chloroform: Φ = 6 mm
Other extracts: No inhibition
[134]
Flower
Ethanol
Phenol content
(151.45 mg CAE/mL)
Micro-dilutionAspergillus nigerMIC = 39.1 µg/mL[117]
Not specified
Methanol
4-Amino- 1,5-pentandioic acidWell diffusionAspergillus terreusΦ = 5.89 mm[141]
Flower
Alcohol 70%
Not specifiedSpectrophotometer deviceSaccharomyces cerevisiaeGrowth decrease = 48% at 3000 μg/mL[148]
Aerial part
Aqueous
Not specified Well diffusionCandida albicansΦ = 0.26–2.56 mm; MIC = 5–40%[143]
Seeds
Aqueous
Sulfated derivatives
Phenol content
(16.4–19.7 mg GAE/g)
(19.2–22.4 mg GAE/g)
Disc diffusionPenicillium citrinum
Aspergillus niger
Aqueous: Φ = 10–12 mm
Sulfated derivatives: Φ = 10–12 mm
Aqueous: Φ = 10 mm
Sulfated derivatives: Φ = 7–10 mm
[149]
Not specified
Aqueous
Not specifiedDisc diffusion
(15–25%)
Candida albicans ATCC 24433Φ = 24.16 mm at concentration of 25%[144]
Flower
Methanol Ethanol Hexane
Diethyl ether
Not specifiedDisc diffusion
(7.5–20 µg/disc)
Micro-dilution
Candida albicans ATCC 10231



Aspergillus flavus ATCC 16875
Methanol: Φ = 15–23 mm; MIC = 10 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 8–21 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 9–23 mm; MIC = 10 µg/mL
Diethyl ether: Φ = 8–20 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Methanol: Φ = 18–24 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Ethanol: Φ = 11–18 mm; MIC = 15 µg/mL
Hexane: Φ = 8–20 mm; MIC = 12.5 µg/mL
Diethyl ether: Φ = 6–21 mm; MIC = 17.5µg/mL
[115]
Other
Flower Peptide AMP1Broth microdilution Candida albicans
Aspergillus sp.
MIC = 3.33–6.66 μmol
MIC = 6.66–13.32 μmol
[150]

4.4. Antiparasitic and Insecticidal Activities

Several studies have investigated the capacity of M. chamomilla EOs and extracts to inhibit the growth of a wide range of parasites and insects. An in vitro evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of Tunisian M. chamomilla EOs was carried out [151]. The results showed that EOs exhibited a good activity on the promastigotes (an extracellular and motile form) of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 10.8 μg/mL after 96 h) and L. infantum (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL after 96 h), while α-bisabolol was able to activate programmed cell death effects in the promastigote. In another study by Hajaji et al., the activity of α-bisabolol against Acanthamoeba castellani has been investigated. The results showed that α-bisabolol has amoebicidal activity with IC50 = 20.83 µg/mL and IC90 = 46.60 µg/mL, and it was able to increase the plasmatic membrane permeability and to decrease ATP levels [152].
M. chamomilla EOs from Nepal was screened for larvicidal activity against glassworm (Chaoborus plumicornis), insecticidal activity against fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans and Artemia salina [131]. The results showed no notable toxicity on these organisms. Nevertheless, M. chamomilla EOs was found to be insecticidal against the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria 3rd nymphal instar (LD50 = 1.59 μg/g body weight) [153] and the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (LC50 of 0.59% after 3 days) [154]. M. chamomilla EOs showed potent acaricidal activity against the red spider mite Tetranychus urticae (LC50 = 0.65%) [155] but was less active against the cattle fever tick Rhipicephalus annulatus (LC50 > 8%) [156]. In another research, M. chamomilla EOs rich in α-bisabolol oxide A showed nematicidal activity against the parasitic Anasakis L3 with 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 μg/mL [157]. Also, Höferl et al. tested the insecticidal activity of six EOs from M. chamomilla against larvae and adult mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. The results varied depending on plant origin, with EOs from South Africa exhibiting the highest activity (LD50 = 2.9 ppm). These findings were related to EOs high content in steroidal spiroethers (12%) [27].
The anti-Acanthamoeba activity of flower extracts of Tunisian M. chamomilla was evaluated on Acanthamoeba castellanii [158]. The methanolic extract has shown a potent anti-acanthamoeba activity (IC50 = 66.23 μg/mL) which is attributed to a coumarin mixture. The anti-helminthic activity of the extracts from M. chamomilla flowers was evaluated on the egg and adult stages of Haemonchus contortus, which is a gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants [159]. Methanolic and aqueous extracts showed higher inhibitory effects on egg hatching (IC50 of 1.52 and 2.55 mg/mL, respectively). After 8 h, methanolic extract induced 91.77% mortality at the highest concentration tested (8 mg/mL), while the aqueous extract induced only 75.05% mortality at the same concentration. Another study showed that methanol extract (at 1024 μg/mL) was the most active as an anti-helminthic against Haemonchus contortus [159]. The percentage of ovicidal activity was 37.5% for the egg hatch test, and the percentage of larvicidal activity was 84% for the larval development test. Concerning the mosquitocidal activity, Al-Mekhlafi et al.have tested the larvicidal and ovicidal effects of the combination of M. chamomilla and Foeniculum vulgare hexane extracts against Culex pipiens. The mixture obtained showed a larvicidal activity with LC50 of 100.3 mg/mL after 72 h exposure [28]. In addition, an ovicidal activity was reported with a decrease in egg hatchability from 95 to 15% at doses ranging from 62.5 to 500 mg/mL. The larval mortality ranged from 13.33 to 93.33% at doses ranging from 31.25 to 250 mg/mL. In another study, M. chamomilla ethyl acetate extract showed the most promising larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens, with 90% mortality at concentration 358.9 μg/mL after 48 h of exposure [160]. Treatment of eggs with concentration of 240 μg/mL showed 86.49% hatchability, and the life cycle could not be completed because all the larvae were dead (100% mortality).

4.5. Antidiabetic Activity

The activity of M. chamomilla extract and isolated apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, cis and trans-2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid glucosides against α-amylase and maltase have been tested [29,161]. The results showed that the extract and the compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition on both enzyme activities. The highest α-amylase and maltase inhibition was obtained by apigenin and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, respectively. Furthermore, these two flavonoids were able to restrict sucrose and glucose transports and regulate sugar absorption. Moreover, another study reported that M. chamomilla hydro-methanolic extract and some isolated compounds inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity [162]. In addition, 3,5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid and luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide suppressed sorbitol accumulation in rat lens under high-glucose conditions, while luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide and luteolin suppressed advanced glycation end products formation. Furthermore, M. chamomilla ethanolic extract demonstrated anti-glycation properties with IC50 of 264.2 µg/mL for lipase inhibition activity [163].

4.6. Anti-Tumoral Activity

M. chamomilla extracts and EOs have also been studied for their anti-tumoral properties on several cancer cell lines. The anticancer activity of M. chamomilla EO was evaluated on human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell line by Ali [30]. The results showed that EOs inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, with 89% inhibition after 24 h exposure at the highest concentration, 640 μg/mL. On the other hand, EO anticancer activity against two species of human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and NB4) was tested [164]. The EOs were able to inhibit both cell lines growth, with higher dead percentages against NB4 cells (86.03% at 200 µg/mL) compared to HL-60 cells (78.4% at 200 µg/mL). In addition, M. chamomilla hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts or roots revealed an anti-proliferative effect on human breast cancer cells [31,165]. The IC50 was 785 g/mL against MDA-MB-468 and 921 g/mL against MCF-7 for aerial parts extracts and 1560 g/mL against MCF-7 for root extracts. The methanolic extract of M. chamomilla has been tested by Fraihat et al. [166] on two solid human melanocyte tumor cell lines, A375.S2 and WM1361A. In this study, results showed an inhibition only in the proliferation of the melanotic WM1361A cell line (IC50 = 25.2 g/mL). On the other hand, Cvetanović et al. [117] found that the extraction method impacted the anticancer efficacy of M. chamomilla extracts. Indeed, subcritical water extracts revealed the most effective cytotoxic activity against murine fibroblast cell line (IC50 = 19.65 μg/mL), human cervical carcinoma cell line Hep2c (IC50 = 20.54 μg/mL), and human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (IC50 = 30.54 μg/mL). Antitumor potentials of water extracts of M. chamomilla seeds obtained at different pH conditions and their corresponding sulfated derivatives against the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were evaluated by [167]. All extracts slightly inhibited the growth of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line at 3 different concentrations (300, 600, and 900 μg/mL). The anticancer properties of M. chamomilla appear to be linked to apoptosis and necrosis, as well as to a decrease in migration and invasion capacities of oncogenic cells [31,167].

4.7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity

The anti-inflammatory effect of M. chamomilla extracts has been reported [32]. According to the findings of this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of M. chamomilla ethanolic extract on macrophages was associated with a decrease in nitric oxide production and cell viability, while on lymphocytes, it was related to the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-10) and the decrease in cell viability. On the other hand, M. chamomilla aqueous extract caused a reduction of nitric oxide production and an increase in cell viability in macrophages, while it was an effective T helper Th2 suppressor by disrupting the Th1/Th2 balance. The difference between these two extracts could be attributed to the presence of different active compounds. In another study, Singh et al. investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of M. chamomilla tea extract. The results showed that extract caused inhibition of protein denaturation and stabilization of human red blood cell membrane, indicating its anti-inflammatory properties [122].
The anti-inflammatory activity of M. chamomilla was also investigated in animal models. According to Wu et al., the volatile and non-volatile components of M. chamomilla, essential oil, flower water, and aqueous extract, can all significantly inhibit swelling of mouse ears caused by xylene, pedal swelling caused by carrageenan in rats, and the increase of celiac capillary vessel permeability in mice. They also had a significant inhibitory effect on the increase in prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide levels in rat pedal edema caused by carrageenan [168]. Furthermore, the effects of M. chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract on the level of inflammatory blood indicators were investigated on rats by Nargesi et al. [125]. Treatment with 110 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract prevented a significant increase in serum levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen. On the other hand, the combination of ethanolic extract and diclofenac or indomethacin, two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed interesting synergic anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced paw inflammation and stomach damage in rats [169].

5. Phyotherapeutical Applications

Traditionally, M. chamomilla has been used to treat several diseases. Nowadays, studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of this plant in animal and human studies. Indeed, M. chamomilla showed an interesting effect on the nervous system of rats by improving learning, memory [104,116,170,171], and motor function [172]. In mice, Can et al. [173] found that EOs had a stimulant effect on the central nervous system similar to that of caffeine. In a clinical study, the oral administration of M. chamomilla extract caused a sedative effect on elderly people, improving their sleep quality [174]. In another study, EOs reduced crying and fussing in breastfed colicky infants [175]. In addition, M. chamomilla EOs can exhibit sedative effects against withdrawal syndrome in narcotics anonymous [176]. On the other hand, clinical studies showed that M. chamomilla could be used to treat anxiety and depression [177,178], including anxiety before esophagogastroduodenoscopy [179].
M. chamomilla tea was effective in reducing pain in patients after orthopedic surgery [45]. In addition, dermal application of flower EOs by patients with knee osteoarthritis decreased their need for analgesic acetaminophen and ameliorated physical function and stiffness [180]. In another clinical trial, Zargaran et al. found that M. chamomilla oleogel can be used to relieve pain in patients with migraine without aura [181]. Additionally, clinical studies demonstrated that M. chamomilla could exhibit an interesting analgesic effect on women during childbirth [182,183]. The plant was also efficient in relieving the pain of mild to moderate mastalgia, breast pain often preceding the menstrual period [184]. In addition, some reviews gathered studies on the use of M. chamomilla in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome [185], primary dysmenorrhea, and reducing menstrual bleeding [186]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts can exhibit an effect on male and female reproductive systems of rats by influencing sexual hormones level [34,187]. Moreover, the extract showed a protective effect against formaldehyde in male rats’ reproductive system [49] and against torsion/detorsion-induced damages on adult rat testis tissue [188] and ovary tissue [189]. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts showed a therapeutic effect against thyroid damage [190] and kidney dysfunction [191] associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in female rats.
Other studies showed the protective effect of M. chamomilla on kidney and liver in animal models [47,192,193]. In animal models, several studies showed that M. chamomilla could be used to treat diabetes [102,194,195,196,197]. In a clinical trial on patients with type 2 diabetes, Rafraf et al. [35] found that short-term intake of M. chamomilla tea can control fatty acids and blood sugar levels and increase insulin sensitivity. In their review, Bayliak et al. [36] reported the possible use of M. chamomilla to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders. Moreover, in both animal and clinical studies, Awaad et al. [37] found that M. chamomilla had anti-hypertensive activity, decreasing the risk for various cardiovascular diseases.
In addition to anti-cancer activity reported before, M. chamomilla can also be used as a chemo-preventive agent [198]. Indeed, the findings showed that aqueous extract had a protective effect against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine that induced colorectal cancer in mice. Moreover, M. chamomilla showed antinociceptive effects against vincristine [199] and formalin [200] in animal models, showing its possible use to treat or attenuate negative side effects of chemotherapy. Clinical studies also showed the ability of M. chamomilla to reduce nausea [201], anxiety, and depression [202] in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
In rats, M. chamomilla exhibited therapeutic gastrointestinal effects on diarrhea [40] and gastric ulcer [39]. In addition, M. chamomilla showed a gastroprotective effect against alcohol-induced ulcer injury in rat gastric mucosa [48]. On the other hand, a traditional Brazilian herbal medicine (Arthur de Carvalho Drops®), prepared from plants extracts including M. chamomilla, showed beneficial effects for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in rats [38]. In a randomized controlled trial, Khadem et al. [203] found that the topical application of M. chamomilla EOs on the abdominal region of patients after cesarean section ameliorated their postoperative bowel activity.
In their study, Park et al. [204] reported that ethanol extract of M. chamomilla was efficient in treating muscle wasting in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. On the other hand, M. chamomilla methanol extract showed anti-allergic activity against compound 48/80 by reducing scratching behavior in mice [41]. This result was explained by the extract’s ability to inhibit histamine release from mast cells. In addition, M. chamomilla extract showed potential to heal wound [46] and atopic dermatitis-like lesions [205] in animal models. Among Matricaria genus is one of the most used in treating skin diseases. A number of patents and medicines have been developed using M. chamomilla EOs and extracts to treat skin diseases [42]. In addition, it has been used for the preparation of skincare formulations [206]. On the other hand, Jiménez Delgado et al. [207] found that M. chamomilla infusion can help reduce the dark rings under the eyes and periocular zone swelling. A commercial eye drop (Dacriovis™), containing extracts from M. chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis, was found to exhibit a protective effect on human corneal epithelial cells from Ultraviolet B exposure [43]. Indeed, the eye drop showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, allowing it to provide protection against cell death and ameliorate wound healing. On the other hand, M. chamomilla can also be used to treat a number of oral diseases. As a saliva substitute, this plant was clinically used against burning mouth syndrome [44] and xerostomia (dry mouth sensation) [208]. As a mouthwash, M. chamomilla was used to treat gingivitis, allowing the decrease of biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding [209]. In addition, Braga et al. [210] found that a mouth rinse containing M. chamomilla aqueous extract showed an anti-caries effect. An orabase containing chamomile extract relieved pain in patients with oral mucosal minor aphthous stomatitis [211].

6. Other Applications

The possible use of M. chamomilla as an anesthetic agent in aquaculture was reported [50,212]. In addition, the plant has been used by farmers as supplementary animal feeds. In rabbits, Alsaadi et al. [51] reported that aqueous flower extract promoted animal growth and had a positive effect on biochemical and hematological parameters. In another study, the use of M. chamomilla as a feed supplement positively influenced the intake of Juniperus phoenicea by goats [213]. M. chamomilla extracts have also been investigated as a food preservative in cottage cheese [59,214], yogurts [63], and biscuits [52]. On the other hand, the antifungal potential of M. chamomilla allows its use as an agricultural tool. In the greenhouse, Ghoniem et al. [53] reported the possible use of M. chamomilla aqueous extract to control Pythium ultimum fungus in bean crops. In addition, the possible use of M. chamomilla as a natural surfactant was studied. Shadizadeh and Kharrat [54] found that hydroglycolic extract can be used as a surfactant for a chemical enhanced oil recovery process since it decreased the oil-water interfacial tension. In another study, Ugi et al. [55] used M. chamomilla as an environmentally friendly inhibitor for the management of water corrosion of federated mild steel.
Although EOs and extracts have several biological activities, their application in industrial fields is limited by their low stability, low solubility, and high evaporation. The encapsulation allows the protection and target delivery and can also enhance biological activities [215]. Some studies incorporated M. chamomilla EOs and extracts into nanoparticles in order to improve their pharmacological properties. Indeed, Das et al. [56] prepared a Pickering emulsion of M. chamomilla EOs stabilized with modified Stöber silica nanoparticles. The Pickering nanoemulsions showed higher antibacterial and antifungal activities than that of emulsion stabilized with Tween 80 and ethanolic solution. The nanoparticles acted as a stabilizer, allowing the controlled release of EOs from the emulsion system. On the other hand, M. chamomilla extracts incorporated in silver nanoparticles demonstrated higher antibacterial and antifungal activities, explained by the synergistic effect between nanoparticles and extract, high localized concentration of extract, and size-specific nanoparticle efficacy [62]. In addition, Negahdary et al. [216] reported good activity of M. chamomilla silver nanoparticles against S. aureus growth and C. albicans biofilm. In another study, silver nanoparticles also exhibited higher activity on bacteria from dairy products [57]. In addition, silver nanoparticles prepared with M. chamomilla aqueous extract exhibited anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) [60]. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles containing aqueous extract exhibited catalytic activity against Rhodamine B under UV irradiation and thus can be considered a promising solution for wastewater treatment [61]. In their study, Karam et al. [58] found that chitosan nanocapsules containing M. chamomilla EOs had activity against Leishmania amazonensis , allowing its use to treat leishmaniasis. In addition, EO nanocapsules showed a significant reduction in cytotoxicity against mammalian cells compared to free EOs. In another study, M. chamomilla aqueous extract microencapsulated in alginate exhibited higher antioxidant activity when incorporated into cottage cheese [59]. However, other reviews on M. chamomilla highlighting several aspects of great interest can be consulted [217,218].

7. Conclusions

In this current review about M. chamomilla, we reported taxonomy and synonym, botanical and ecology description, geographic distribution, ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, medicinal and other applications, and encapsulation solutions. Traditionally, M. chamomilla was used to treat a variety of diseases, including diabetes, nervous disorders, diarrhea, angina, canker sore, abscess, microbial infections, painful menstruation, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, sciatic pain, throat, ear, and skin, and stomach disorder. Moreover, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporosis, and analgesic activities of M. chamomilla EOs and extracts have been identified in in vitro and in vivo studies. The chemical composition of this plant from different countries of the world also has been reported in this work. Almost all studies have concentrated on the plant’s flower components. The abundance of terpenoids present in EOs and phenolic compounds present in extracts of M. chamomilla has been shown through the phytochemical screening of EOs and extracts by chromatographic techniques (GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS). There are also coumarin and amino acids. Depending on the origin of the plants, the concentration and structure of the predominant chemicals vary significantly from one sample to another, establishing different chemotypes.
The pharmacological investigation of M. chamomilla was attributed to the chemical composition, containing numerous biocompound types.
The most important application of M. chamomilla was in the medicinal field on animal models and on human patients; the results showed the therapeutic effect of this plant on a wide range of diseases, including nervous cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, skin and reproductive diseases, obesity and related metabolic disorders, allergies, eye dysfunctions, acting as a protective agent in kidney, liver, among other systems.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.E.M. and S.C.; methodology, J.C.G.E.d.S.; software, A.E.M. and S.C.; validation, M.E.C.C., A.L. and M.B.A.; investigation, A.E.M., S.C. and M.B.A.; resources, M.E.C.C. and M.B.A.; writing—original draft preparation, A.E.M. and S.C.; writing—review and editing, A.E.M., S.C., M.E.C.C. and M.B.A.; visualization, A.L.; supervision, M.B.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Acknowledgments

The Portuguese “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” (FCT) is acknowledged for funding the R&D Unit CIQUP (project UIDB/00081/2020).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Abbreviations

ABTS2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)
ATCCAmerican Type Culture Collection
BHTbutylated hydroxytoluene
CAEChlorogenic Acid Equivalent
DPPH2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
DWDry Weight
EC50Effective control to 50% growth inhibition
EOEssential Oil
FRAPFerric Reducing Antioxidant Power
FWFresh Weight
GAEGallic Acid Equivalent
GMCAβ-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid
IC50Half maximal Inhibitory Concentration
LC50Lethal Concentration necessary to kill 50% of the population
LD50Lethal Dose necessary to kill 50% of the population
MBCMinimum Bactericidal Concentration
MFCMinimum Fungicidal Concentration
MICMinimum Inhibitory Concentration
MRSAMethicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
QEQuercetin Equivalent
TETrolox Equivalent
TEACTrolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity

References

  1. Lim, T.K. Matricaria chamomilla. In Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2014; Volume 7, pp. 397–431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Singh, O.; Khanam, Z.; Misra, N.; Srivastava, M.K. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview. Pharmacogn. Rev. 2011, 5, 82–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  3. Menale, B.; De Castro, O.; Di Iorio, E.; Ranaldi, M.; Muoio, R. Discovering the ethnobotanical traditions of the island of Procida (Campania, southern Italy). Plant Biosyst. An Int. J. Deal. All Asp. Plant Biol. 2021, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Güzel, Y.; Güzelşemme, M.; Miski, M. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Antakya: A multicultural district in Hatay Province of Turkey. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2015, 174, 118–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Živković, J.; Ilić, M.; Šavikin, K.; Zdunić, G.; Ilić, A.; Stojković, D. Traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Eastern Serbia (Pčinja District): Ethnopharmacological investigation on the current status and comparison with half a century old data. Front. Pharmacol. 2020, 11, 1020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Neves, J.M.; Matos, C.; Moutinho, C.; Queiroz, G.; Gomes, L.R. Ethnopharmacological notes about ancient uses of medicinal plants in Trás-os-Montes (northern of Portugal). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 124, 270–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Mikou, K.; Rachiq, S.; Jarrar Oulidi, A. Étude ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales et aromatiques utilisées dans la ville de Fès au Maroc. Phytotherapie 2016, 14, 35–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Petrakou, K.; Iatrou, G.; Lamari, F.N. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets in the Peloponnisos, Greece. J. Herb. Med. 2020, 19, 100305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Orav, A.; Raal, A.; Arak, E. Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries. Nat. Prod. Res. 2010, 24, 48–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Piri, E.; Sourestani, M.M.; Khaleghi, E.; Mottaghipisheh, J.; Zomborszki, Z.P.; Hohmann, J.; Csupor, D. Chemo-diversity and antiradical potential of twelve Matricaria chamomilla L. populations from Iran: Pproof of ecological effects. Molecules 2019, 24, 1315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  11. Ghasemi, M.; Jelodar, N.B.; Modarresi, M.; Bagheri, N.; Jamali, A. Increase of chamazulene and α-bisabolol contents of the essential oil of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) using salicylic acid treatments under normal and heat stress conditions. Foods 2016, 5, 56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  12. Mavandi, P.; Assareh, M.H.; Dehshiri, A.; Rezadoost, H.; Abdossi, V. Flower biomass, essential oil production and chemotype identification of some Iranian Matricaria chamomilla Var. recutita (L.) accessions and commercial varieties. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 2019, 22, 1228–1240. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Abbas, A.M.; Seddik, M.A.; Gahory, A.A.; Salaheldin, S.; Soliman, W.S. Differences in the aroma profile of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) after different drying conditions. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5083. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Homami, S.S.; Jaimand, K.; Rezaee, M.B.; Afzalzadeh, R. Comparative studies of different extraction methods of essential oil from Matricaria recutita L. in Iran. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. 2016, 61, 2982–2984. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  15. Zarezadeh, S.; Riahi, H.; Shariatmadari, Z.; Sonboli, A. Effects of cyanobacterial suspensions as bio-fertilizers on growth factors and the essential oil composition of chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. J. Appl. Phycol. 2020, 32, 1231–1241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Qureshi, M.N.; Stecher, G.; Bonn, G.K. Quality control of herbs: Determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2014, 27, 459–462. [Google Scholar]
  17. Petrulova, V.; Vilkova, M.; Kovalikova, Z.; Sajko, M.; Repcak, M. Ethylene Induction of non-enzymatic metabolic antioxidants in Matricaria chamomilla. Molecules 2020, 25, 5720. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Kováčik, J.; Klejdus, B.; Hedbavny, J.; Štork, F.; Bačkor, M. Comparison of cadmium and copper effect on phenolic metabolism, mineral nutrients and stress-related parameters in Matricaria chamomilla plants. Plant Soil 2009, 320, 231–242. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Hassanpour, H.; Ghanbarzadeh, M. Induction of cell division and antioxidative enzyme activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. cell line under clino-rotation. Plant Cell. Tissue Organ Cult. 2021, 146, 215–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Molnar, M.; Mendešević, N.; Šubarić, D.; Banjari, I.; Jokić, S. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction of umbelliferone and herniarin in Matricaria chamomilla processing fractions. Chem. Cent. J. 2017, 11, 78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Kolodziejczyk-czepas, J.; Bijak, M.; Saluk, J.; Ponczek, M.B.; Zbikowska, H.M.; Nowak, P.; Tsirigotis-maniecka, M. Radical scavenging and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla polyphenolic—Polysaccharide conjugates. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2015, 72, 1152–1158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Owlia, P.; Rosooli, I.; Saderi, H.; Aliahmadi, M. Retardation of biofilm formation with reduced productivity of alginate as a result of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure to Matricaria chamomilla essentiel oil. J. Pharmacogn. Mag. 2007, 10, 83. [Google Scholar]
  23. Sadat, S.S.; Ahani Azari, A.; Mazandarani, M. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla, Malva sylvestris and Capsella bursa-pastoris against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2021, 8, 127–131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Ahani Azari, A.; Danesh, A. Antibacterial effect of Matricaria chamomilla alcoholic extract against drug-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect. Epidemiol. Microbiol. 2021, 7, 29–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Poudineh, F.; Azari, A.A.; Fozouni, L. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla, Malva cylvestris, and Capsella bursa-pastoris against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Hamadan Univ. Med. Sci. 2021, 8, 23–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Lavanya, J.; Periyar Selvam, S.; Jeevitha Priya, M.; Jacintha, P.; Aradana, M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants against human oral pathogens. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2016, 8, 71–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  27. Höferl, M.; Wanner, J.; Tabanca, N.; Ali, A.; Gochev, V.; Schmidt, E.; Kaul, V.K.; Singh, V.; Jirovetz, L. Biological activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oils of various chemotypes. Planta Med. Int. Open 2020, 7, e114–e121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Al-Mekhlafi, F.A.; Abutaha, N.; Al-Doaiss, A.A.; Ahmed Al- Keridis, L.; Alsayadi, A.I.; Ali El Hadi Mohamed, R.; Wadaan, M.A.; Elfaki Ibrahim, K.; Al-Khalifa, M.S. Target and non-target effects of Foeniculum vulgare and Matricaria chamomilla combined extract on Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2021, 28, 5773–5780. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Villa-Rodriguez, J.A.; Kerimi, A.; Abranko, L.; Tumova, S.; Ford, L.; Blackburn, R.S.; Rayner, C.; Williamson, G. Acute metabolic actions of the major polyphenols in chamomile: An in vitro mechanistic study on their potential to attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 5471. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  30. Ali, E.M. Phytochemical composition, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oils. J. Med. Plants Res. 2013, 7, 2197–2207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Nikseresht, M.; Kamali, A.M.; Rahimi, H.R.; Delaviz, H.; Toori, M.A.; Kashani, I.R.; Mahmoudi, R. The hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 cell lines. Pharmacogn. Res. 2017, 9, 87–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  32. Asadi, Z.; Ghazanfari, T.; Hatami, H. Anti-inflammatory effects of Matricaria chamomilla extracts on BALB/c mice macrophages and lymphocytes. Iran. J. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020, 19, 63–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Asgharzade, S.; Rabiei, Z.; Rafieian-Kopaei, M. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2015, 5, 829–833. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  34. Golkhani, S.; Vahdati, A.; Modaresi, M. The effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract during neonatal period of rats on pituitary-gonadal hormone axis and changes in testicular tissue of male progenies. Middle East J. Fam. Med. 2017, 15, 126–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  35. Rafraf, M.; Zemestani, M.; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M. Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J. Endocrinol. Investig. 2015, 38, 163–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Bayliak, M.M.; Dmytriv, T.R.; Melnychuk, A.V.; Strilets, N.V.; Storey, K.B.; Lushchak, V.I. Chamomile as a potential remedy for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Excli J. 2021, 20, 1261–1286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Awaad, A.A.; El-Meligy, R.M.; Zain, G.M.; Safhi, A.A.; AL Qurain, N.A.; Almoqren, S.S.; Zain, Y.M.; Sesh Adri, V.D.; Al-Saikhan, F.I. Experimental and clinical antihypertensive activity of Matricaria chamomilla extracts and their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Phyther. Res. 2018, 32, 1564–1573. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Silveira, E.S.; Bezerra, S.B.; Ávila, K.S.; Rocha, T.M.; Pinheiro, R.G.; de Queiroz, M.G.R.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Santos, F.A.; Leal, L.K.A.M. Gastrointestinal effects of standardized Brazilian phytomedicine (Arthur de Carvalho Drops®) containing Matricaria recutita, Gentiana lutea and Foeniculum vulgare. Pathophysiology 2019, 26, 349–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Morshedi, M.; Gol, A.; Mohammadzadeh, A. The effect of Matricaria chamomilla on the treatment of ibuprofen-induced gastric ulcers in male rats. Hormozgan Med. J. 2016, 20, 270–275. [Google Scholar]
  40. Sebai, H.; Jabri, M.A.; Souli, A.; Rtibi, K.; Selmi, S.; Tebourbi, O.; El-Benna, J.; Sakly, M. Antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 152, 327–332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Chandrashekhar, V.M.; Halagali, K.S.; Nidavani, R.B.; Shalavadi, M.H.; Biradar, B.S.; Biswas, D.; Muchchandi, I.S. Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in mast cell mediated allergy model. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 137, 336–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Dos Santos, D.S.; de Barreto, R.S.S.; Serafini, M.R.; Gouveia, D.N.; Marques, R.S.; de Nascimento, L.C.; de Nascimento, J.C.; Guimarães, A.G. Phytomedicines containing Matricaria species for the treatment of skin diseases: A biotechnological approach. Fitoterapia 2019, 138, 104267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Bigagli, E.; Cinci, L.; D’Ambrosio, M.; Luceri, C. Pharmacological activities of an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts in UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation of human corneal cells. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 2017, 173, 618–625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Aitken-Saavedra, J.; Chaves Tarquinio, S.B.; De Oliveira Da Rosa, W.L.; Fernandes Da Silva, A.; Almeida MacHado, B.M.E.; Santos Castro, I.; Oliveira Wennesheimer, A.; Morales-Bozo, I.; Uchoa Vasconcelos, A.C.; Neutzling Gomes, A.P. Effect of a homemade salivary substitute prepared using chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L. flower and flax Linum usitatissimum L. seed to relieve primary burning mouth syndrome: A preliminary report. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2020, 26, 799–806. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. Saidi, R.; Heidari, H.; Sedehi, M.; Safdarian, B. Evaluating the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and Melissa officinalis on pain intensity and satisfaction with pain management in patients after orthopedic surgery. J. HerbMed Pharmacol. 2020, 9, 339–345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Niknam, S.; Tofighi, Z.; Faramarzi, M.A.; Abdollahifar, M.A.; Sajadi, E.; Dinarvand, R.; Toliyat, T. Polyherbal combination for wound healing: Matricaria chamomilla L. and Punica granatum L. DARU J. Pharm. Sci. 2021, 29, 133–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Abd-Allah, D.; Salah-Eldin, A. Amerolative influence of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) on synthetic food additive induced probable toxicity in male albino rats. J. Food Dairy Sci. 2021, 12, 161–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Jabri, M.A.; Aissani, N.; Tounsi, H.; Sakly, M.; Marzouki, L.; Sebai, H. Protective effect of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract against alcohol-induced injury in rat gastric mucosa. Pathophysiology 2017, 24, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Afrigan, L.; Jafari Anarkooli, I.; Sohrabi, D.; Abdanipour, A.; Yazdinezhad, A.; Sayyar, Z.; Ghorbanlou, M.; Arianmanesh, M. The effect of hydroethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla on the reproductive system of male rats exposed to formaldehyde. Andrologia 2019, 51, e13362. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Al-Niaeem, K.S.; Abdulrahman, N.M.A.; Attee, R.S. Using of anise (Pimpinella anisum) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) powders for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. anesthesia. Biol. Appl. Environ. Res. 2019, 3, 111–117. [Google Scholar]
  51. Alsaadi, S.A.R.A.; Al-Perkhdri, A.S.A.; Al-Hadeedy, I.Y.H. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla flower aqueous extract on some hematological, biochemical parameters and carcass traits in Iraqi local rabbits. Plant Arch. 2020, 20, 1044–1049. [Google Scholar]
  52. Caleja, C.; Barros, L.; Antonio, A.L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits. Food Chem. 2017, 216, 342–346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  53. Ghoniem, A.A.; El-Hai, K.M.A.; El-Khateeb, A.Y.; Eldadamony, N.M.; Mahmoud, S.F.; Elsayed, A. Enhancing the potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum against pythium pathogen of beans using chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, L.) flower extract. Molecules 2021, 26, 1178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Shadizadeh, S.S.; Kharrat, R. Experimental investigation of Matricaria chamomilla extract effect on oil-water interfacial tension: Usable for chemical enhanced oil recovery. Pet. Sci. Technol. 2015, 33, 901–907. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Ugi, B.U.; Abeng, F.E.; Obeten, M.E.; Uwah, I.E. Management of aqueous corrosion of federated mild steel (Local constructional steel) at elevated temperatures employing environmentally friendly inhibitors: Matricaria chamomilla plant. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 2019, 3, 6–12. [Google Scholar]
  56. Das, S.; Horváth, B.; Šafranko, S.; Jokić, S.; Széchenyi, A.; Koszegi, T. Antimicrobial activity of chamomile essential oil: Effect of different formulations. Molecules 2019, 24, 4321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  57. Kareem, P.A. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by using Matricaria chamomilla extract and effect on bacteria isolated from dairy products. Diyala J. Pure Sci. 2018, 14, 176–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Karam, T.K.; Ortega, S.; Ueda Nakamura, T.; Auzély-Velty, R.; Nakamura, C.V. Development of chitosan nanocapsules containing essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla L. for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 162, 199–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Caleja, C.; Ribeiro, A.; Barros, L.; Barreira, J.C.M.; Antonio, A.L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Barreiro, M.F.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms. Food Chem. 2016, 199, 720–726. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  60. Dadashpour, M.; Firouzi-Amandi, A.; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, M.; Maleki, M.J.; Soozangar, N.; Jeddi, F.; Nouri, M.; Zarghami, N.; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Y. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Matricaria chamomilla extract and their potential anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2018, 92, 902–912. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Alshehri, A.A.; Malik, M.A. Phytomediated photo-induced green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Matricaria chamomilla L. and its catalytic activity against rhodamine B. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Dogru, E.; Demirbas, A.; Altinsoy, B.; Duman, F.; Ocsoy, I. Formation of Matricaria chamomilla extract-incorporated Ag nanoparticles and size-dependent enhanced antimicrobial property. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 2017, 174, 78–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Caleja, C.; Barros, L.; Antonio, A.L.; Carocho, M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives. Food Chem. 2016, 210, 262–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  64. Ali, A.E.; Ali, S.M.E.H.; EL-Rhman, S.A.E.A.; El Mohamed, M.A. Brine-shrimp lethality bioassay of different extracts of the medicinal plant matricaria (chamomilla) flowers. Res. Sq. 2020, 10–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Franke, R.; Schilcher, H. Chamomile: Industrial Profiles; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2005; 304p. [Google Scholar]
  66. Leung, A.; Foster., S.F. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics; John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1996; Volume 38, 649p. [Google Scholar]
  67. Franz, C.; Bauer, R.; Carle, R.; Tedesco, D. Study on the assessment of plants/herbs, plant/herb extracts and their naturally or synthetically produced components as ‘additives’ for use in animal production. EFSA Support. Publ. 2007, 4, 070828. [Google Scholar]
  68. Alberts, W.G. German Chamomile Production; Directorate Agricultural Information Services. Department of Agriculture; Private Bag X: Pretoria, South Africa, 2009; Volume 144, 19p. [Google Scholar]
  69. Misra, N.; Luthra, R.; Singh, K.L.; Kumar, S.; Kiran, L. Recent Advances in Biosynthesis of Alkaloids; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999; pp. 25–59. [Google Scholar]
  70. Mckay, D.L.; Blumberg, J.B. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.). Phyther. Res. An Int. J. Devoted to Pharmacol. Toxicol. Eval. Nat. Prod. Deriv. 2006, 20, 519–530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Fennane, M. Etude phytoécologique des tétraclinaies marocaines. Thèse de Doctorat. Aix-Marseille 3. Phytosociologie des tétraclinaies marocaines. Bull. L’institutSci. Rabat 1987, 12, 99–148. [Google Scholar]
  72. Mrabti, H.N.; Bouyahya, A.; Naceiri Mrabti, N.; Jaradat, N.; Doudach, L.; Faouzi, M.E.A. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by traditional healers to treat diabetes in the Taza region of Morocco. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2021, 2021, 5515634. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Mrabti, H.N.; Jaradat, N.; Kachmar, M.R.; Ed-Dra, A.; Ouahbi, A.; Cherrah, Y.; El Abbes Faouzi, M. Integrative herbal treatments of diabetes in Beni Mellal region of Morocco. J. Integr. Med. 2019, 17, 93–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Eddouks, M.; Ajebli, M.; Hebi, M. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2017, 198, 516–530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Idm’hand, E.; Msanda, F.; Cherifi, K. Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco. Acta Ecol. Sin. 2020, 40, 134–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Benítez, G.; González-Tejero, M.R.; Molero-Mesa, J. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the western part of Granada province (southern Spain): Ethnopharmacological synthesis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 129, 87–105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. Parada, M.; Carrió, E.; Bonet, M.À.; Vallès, J. Ethnobotany of the Alt Empordà region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Plants used in human traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 124, 609–618. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Tuttolomondo, T.; Licata, M.; Leto, C.; Savo, V.; Bonsangue, G.; Letizia Gargano, M.; Venturella, G.; La Bella, S. Ethnobotanical investigation on wild medicinal plants in the Monti Sicani Regional Park (Sicily, Italy). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 153, 568–586. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  79. Di Novella, R.; Di Novella, N.; De Martino, L.; Mancini, E.; De Feo, V. Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013, 145, 328–342. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Marković, M.S.; Pljevljakušić, D.S.; Nikolić, B.M.; Miladinović, D.L.; Djokić, M.M.; Rakonjac, L.B.; Stankov Jovanović, V.P. Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Pirot County (Serbia). S. Afr. J. Bot. 2021, 137, 278–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Janaćković, P.; Gavrilović, M.; Savić, J.; Marin, P.D.; Stevanović, Z.D. Traditional knowledge on plant use from Negotin Krajina (Eastern Serbia): An ethnobotanical study. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2019, 18, 25–33. [Google Scholar]
  82. Živković, J.; Ilić, M.; Zdunić, G.; Jovanović-Lješković, N.; Menković, N.; Šavikin, K. Traditional use of medicinal plants in Jablanica district (South-Eastern Serbia): Ethnobotanical survey and comparison with scientific data. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 2021, 68, 1655–1674. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Šavikin, K.; Zdunić, G.; Menković, N.; Živković, J.; Ćujić, N.; Tereščenko, M.; Bigović, D. Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013, 146, 803–810. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Zlatković, B.K.; Bogosavljević, S.S.; Radivojević, A.R.; Pavlović, M.A. Traditional use of the native medicinal plant resource of Mt. Rtanj (Eastern Serbia): Ethnobotanical evaluation and comparison. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 151, 704–713. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Pieroni, A. Traditional uses of wild food plants, medicinal plants, and domestic remedies in Albanian, Aromanian and Macedonian villages in South-Eastern Albania. J. Herb. Med. 2017, 9, 81–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Kozuharova, E.; Lebanova, H.; Getov, I.; Benbassat, N.; Napier, J. Descriptive study of contemporary status of the traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in Bulgaria. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2013, 7, 185–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. El-Assri, E.-M.; Eloutassi, N.; El Barnossi, A.; Bakkari, F.; Hmamou, A.; Bouia, A. Wild chamomile (Matricaria recutita L) from the Taounate Province, Morocco: Extraction and valorisation of the antibacterial activity of its essential oils. Trop. J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2021, 5, 883–888. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. EL-Hefny, M.; Abo Elgat, W.A.A.; Al-Huqail, A.A.; Ali, H.M. Essential and recovery oils from Matricaria chamomilla flowers as environmentally friendly fungicides against four fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects. Processes 2019, 7, 809. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  89. Ayran, İ.; Çelik, S.A.; Kan, A.; Kan, Y. Essential oil yield and compositions of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) culıivated in different province of Turkey. Int. J. Agric. Environ. Food Sci. 2018, 2, 202–203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Berechet, M.D.; Manaila, E.; Stelescu, M.D.; Craciun, G. The composition of essential oils obtained from Achillea millefolium and Matricaria chamomilla L., Originary from Romania. Rev. Chim. 2017, 68, 2787–2795. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Demarque, D.P.; Sabóia, J.F.; Fabri, J.R.; Carollo, C.A. Allelopathic activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil by the bioautography test. Allelopath. J. 2012, 29, 171–176. [Google Scholar]
  92. Formisano, C.; Delfine, S.; Oliviero, F.; Tenore, G.C.; Rigano, D.; Senatore, F. Correlation among environmental factors, chemical composition and antioxidative properties of essential oil and extracts of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) collected in Molise (South-central Italy). Ind. Crops Prod. 2015, 63, 256–263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Baghalian, K.; Haghiry, A.; Naghavi, M.R.; Mohammadi, A. Effect of saline irrigation water on agronomical and phytochemical characters of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Sci. Hortic. 2008, 116, 437–441. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Ayoughi, F.; Marzegar, M.; Sahari, M.A.; Naghdibadi, H. Chemical compositions of essential oils of Artemisia dracunculus L. and endemic Matricaria chamomilla L. and an evaluation of their antioxidative effects. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2011, 13, 79–88. [Google Scholar]
  95. Farhoudi, R. Chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of Matricaria recutita and Chamaemelum nobile essential oil growing wild in the South West of Iran. J. Essent. Oil-Bear. Plants 2013, 16, 531–537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Hosseinzadeh, Z.; Piryae, M.; Asl, M.B.; Abolghasemi, M.M. ZnO polythiophene SBA-15 nanoparticles as a solid-phase microextraction fiber for fast determination of essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla. Nanochem. Res. 2018, 3, 124–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Kazemi, M. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Matricaria recutita. Int. J. Food Prop. 2015, 18, 1784–1792. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  98. Mahmoudi, A.; Karami, M.; Ebadi, M.T.; Ayyari, M. Effects of infrared drying and air flow rate on qualitative parameters. Iran. J. Med. Aromat. Plants Res. 2020, 36, 709–723. [Google Scholar]
  99. Ganzera, M.; Schneider, P.; Stuppner, H. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life Sci. 2006, 78, 856–861. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Heuskin, S.; Godin, B.; Leroy, P.; Capella, Q.; Wathelet, J.P.; Verheggen, F.; Haubruge, E.; Lognay, G. Fast gas chromatography characterisation of purified semiochemicals from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae). J. Chromatogr. A 2009, 1216, 2768–2775. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Abdalla, R.M.; Abdelgadir, A.E. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum verum and Matricaria chamomilla from Sudan. Bio Bull. 2016, 2, 8–12. [Google Scholar]
  102. Elsemelawy, S.A. Antidiabetic and antioxidative activity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) powder on diabetic rats. J. Stud. Searches Specif. Educ. 2017, 3, 97–112. [Google Scholar]
  103. Petrul’ová-Poracká, V.; Repčák, M.; Vilková, M.; Imrich, J. Coumarins of Matricaria chamomilla L.: Aglycones and glycosides. Food Chem. 2013, 141, 54–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Sayyar, Z.; Yazdinezhad, A.; Hassan, M.; Jafari Anarkooli, I. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla ethanolic extract on hippocampal neuron damage in rats exposed to formaldehyde. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2018, 2018, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  105. Zhao, Y.; Sun, P.; Ma, Y.; Wang, K.; Chang, X.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L. Simultaneous quantitative determination of six caffeoylquinic acids in Matricaria chamomilla L. with high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chem. 2019, 2019, 4352832. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. Ma, X.; Zhao, D.; Li, X.; Meng, L. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers. Pharmacogn. Mag. 2015, 11, 176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  107. Stanojevic, L.P.; Marjanovic-Balaban, Z.R.; Kalaba, V.D.; Stanojevic, J.S.; Cvetkovic, D.J. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of chamomile flowers essential oil (Matricaria chamomilla L.). J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 2016, 19, 2017–2028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Mahdavi, B.; Ghorat, F.; Nasrollahzadeh, M.S.; Hosseyni-Tabar, M.; Rezaei-Seresht, H. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, and hemolyses activity of essential oils from flower of Matricaria chamomilla var. chamomilla. Anti-Infect. Agents 2020, 18, 224–232. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Melo-Guerrero, M.C.; Ortiz-Jurado, D.E.; Hurtado-Benavides, A.M. Comparison of the composition and antioxidant activity of the chamomile essential oil (Matricaria chamomilla L.) obtained by supercritical fluids extraction and other green techniques. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exactas Fis. Nat. 2020, 44, 845–856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. El Mihyaoui, A.; Candela, M.E.; Cano, A.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Lamarti, A.; Arnao, M.B. Comparative study of wild chamomile plants from the north-west of Morocco: Bioactive components and total antioxidant activity. J. Med. Plants Res. 2021, 5, 431–441. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Abdoul-Latif, F.M.; Mohamed, N.; Edou, P.; Ali, A.A.; Djama, S.O.; Obame, L.C.; Bassolé, I.H.N.; Dicko, M.H. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. from Djibouti. J. Med. Plants Res. 2011, 5, 1512–1517. [Google Scholar]
  112. El-Agbar, Z.A.; Shakya, A.K.; Khalaf, N.A.; Al-Haroon, M. Comparative antioxidant activity of some edible plants. Turk. J. Biol. 2008, 32, 193–196. [Google Scholar]
  113. Elmastaș, M.; Inkiliç, S.Ç.; Aboul-Enein, H.Y. Antioxidant capacity and determination of total phenolic compounds in daisy (Matricaria chamomilla, Fam. Asteraceae). World J. Anal. Chem. 2015, 3, 9–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Munir, N.; Iqbal, A.S.; Altaf, I.; Bashir, R.; Sharif, N.; Saleem, F.; Naz, S. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of two endangered plant species Atropa belladonna and Matricaria chamomilla. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2014, 11, 111–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  115. Roby, M.H.H.; Sarhan, M.A.; Selim, K.A.-H.; Khalel, K.I. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Ind. Crops Prod. 2013, 44, 437–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Alibabaei, Z.; Rabiei, Z.; Rahnama, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Rafieian-kopaei, M. Matricaria chamomilla extract demonstrates antioxidant properties against elevated rat brain oxidative status induced by amnestic dose of scopolamine. Biomed. Aging Pathol. 2014, 4, 355–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Cvetanović, A.; Švarc-Gajić, J.; Mašković, P.; Savić, S.; Nikolić, L. Antioxidant and biological activity of chamomile extracts obtained by different techniques: Perspective of using superheated water for isolation of biologically active compounds. Ind. Crops Prod. 2015, 65, 582–591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  118. Cvetanović, A.; Švarc-Gajić, J.; Zeković, Z.; Jerković, J.; Zengin, G.; Gašić, U.; Tešić, Ž.; Mašković, P.; Soares, C.; Fatima Barroso, M.; et al. The influence of the extraction temperature on polyphenolic profiles and bioactivity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) subcritical water extracts. Food Chem. 2019, 271, 328–337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  119. Sotiropoulou, N.S.; Megremi, S.F.; Tarantilis, P. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, toxicity, and phenolic profile of aqueous extracts of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) prepared at different temperatures. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  120. Pereira, S.V.; Reis, R.A.S.P.; Garbuio, D.C.; De Freitas, L.A.P. Dynamic maceration of Matricaria chamomilla inflorescences: Optimal conditions for flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2018, 28, 111–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  121. de Franco, E.P.D.; Contesini, F.J.; Lima da Silva, B.; Alves de Piloto Fernandes, A.M.; Wielewski Leme, C.; Gonçalves Cirino, J.P.; Bueno Campos, P.R.; de Oliveira Carvalho, P. Enzyme-assisted modification of flavonoids from Matricaria chamomilla: Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes. J. Enzym. Inhib. Med. Chem. 2020, 35, 42–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  122. Singh, K.G.; Sonia, S.; Konsoor, N. In vitro and ex-vivo studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties of Camellia sinensis, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa sp., Zingiber officinale tea extracts. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2018, 9, 3543–3551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Nemţanu, M.R.; Kikuchi, I.S.; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, T.; Mazilu, E.; Setnic, S.; Bucur, M.; Duliu, O.G.; Meltzer, V.; Pincu, E. Electron beam irradiation of Matricaria chamomilla L. for microbial decontamination. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. At. 2008, 266, 2520–2523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Hassanpour, H.; Niknam, V. Establishment and assessment of cell suspension cultures of Matricaria chamomilla as a possible source of apigenin under static magnetic field. Plant Cell. Tissue Organ Cult. 2020, 142, 583–593. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Nargesi, S.; Moayeri, A.; Ghorbani, A.; Seifinejad, Y.; Shirzadpour, E. The effects of Matricaria chamomilla L. hydroalcoholic extract on atherosclerotic plaques, antioxidant activity, lipid profile and inflammatory indicators in rats. Biomed. Res. Ther. 2018, 5, 2752–2761. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Silva, N.C.C.; Barbosa, L.; Seito, L.N.; Fernandes, A., Jr. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants. Nat. Prod. Res. 2012, 26, 1510–1514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  127. Chouhan, S.; Sharma, K.; Guleria, S. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils—Present status and future perspectives. Medicines 2017, 4, 58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  128. Owlia, P.; Rasooli, I.; Shahed, H. Antistreptococcal and antioxidant activity of essentiel oil from Matricaria chamomilla L. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2007, 2, 155–160. [Google Scholar]
  129. Sakkas, H.; Economou, V.; Gousia, P.; Bozidis, P.; Sakkas, V.A.; Petsios, S.; Mpekoulis, G.; Ilia, A.; Papadopoulou, C. Antibacterial efficacy of commercially available essential oils tested against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  130. Shakya, V.K.; Luqman, S.; Tikku, A.P.; Chandra, A.; Singh, D.K. A relative assessment of essential oil of Chrysopogon zizanioides and Matricaria chamomilla along with calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel against Enterococcus faecalis in ex vivo root canal models. J. Conserv. Dent. 2019, 22, 34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Satyal, P.; Shrestha, S.; Setzer, W.N. Composition and bioactivities of an (E)-β-farnesene chemotype of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) essential oil from Nepal. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015, 10, 1453–1457. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  132. Hartmann, K.C.; Onofre, S.B. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais da camoantimicrobial activity of the essential oils of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Rev. Saúde Pesqui. 2010, 3, 279–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Ismail, M.C.; Waleed, S.; Ibrahim, K.; Fakhri, N.U. Synergistic interaction between chamomile flower (Matricaria chamomilla L.) extracts and tetracycline against wound infection bacteria. J. Al-Nahrain Univ. Sci. 2013, 16, 191–195. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  134. Boudıeb, K.; Kaki, S.A.S.A.; Oulebsir-Mohandkaci, H.; Bennacer, A. Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial potentialities of two medicinal plants, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All and Matricaria chamomilla (L.). Int. J. Innov. Approaches Sci. Res. 2018, 2, 126–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Mariod, A.A.; Kakil, E.S.; Elneel, Y.F.H. Antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale, Matricaria chamomilla and Nigella sativa extractions on the growth of pathogenic bacteria isolated from different clinical specimens. Acta Sci. Nutr. Health 2019, 3, 26–32. [Google Scholar]
  136. Malm, A.; Glowniak-Lipa, A.; Korona-Glowniak, I.; Baj, T. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs—A preliminary report. Curr. Issues Pharm. Med. Sci. 2015, 28, 30–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  137. Carvalho, A.F.; Silva, D.M.; Silva, T.R.C.; Scarcelli, E.; Manhani, M.R. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos etanólico e de ciclohexano a partir das flores de camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Rev. Bras. Plantas Med. 2014, 16, 521–526. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Khashan, A.A.; Hamad, M.A.; Jadaan, M.S. In vivo antimicrobial activity of Matricaria chamomilla extract against pathogenic bacteria induced skin infections in mice. Syst. Rev. Pharm. 2020, 11, 672–676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Bayoub, K.; Baibai, T.; Mountassif, D.; Retmane, A.; Soukri, A. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes and some other pathogenic strains. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2010, 9, 4251–4258. [Google Scholar]
  140. Abdi, P.; Mahdavi Ourtakand, M.; Honarmand Jahromy, S. The Effect of Matricaria chamomilla alcoholic extract on phenotype detection of efflux pumps of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from skin lesions. Iran. J. Med. Microbiol. 2019, 13, 220–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Hameed, R.H.; Mohammed, G.J.; Hameed, I.H. Matricaria chamomilla: Bioactive compounds of methanolic fruit extract using GC-MS and FTIR techniques and determination of its antimicrobial properties. Indian J. Public Health Res. Dev. 2018, 9, 188–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Vora, J.; Srivastava, A.; Modi, H. Antibacterial and antioxidant strategies for acne treatment through plant extracts. Inform. Med. Unlocked 2018, 13, 128–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Omran, A.M. Antimicrobial and phytochemical study of Matricaria chamomilla L., Menthalongi folia L. and Salvia officinalis L. Plant Arch. 2018, 18, 387–397. [Google Scholar]
  144. Rahman, H.; Chandra, A. Microbiologic evaluation of Matricaria and chlorhexidine against E. faecalis and C. albicans. Indian J. Dent. 2015, 6, 60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  145. Peerzada, T.; Gupta, J. Distribution of phytochemicals in stems and leaves of Cichorium intybus and Matricaria chamomilla: Assessment of their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. J. Biotechnol. Comput. Biol. Bionanotechnol. 2018, 99, 119–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Sharifzadeh, A.; Shokri, H. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans. Avicenna J. Phytomed. 2016, 6, 215–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  147. Mekonnen, A.; Yitayew, B.; Tesema, A.; Taddese, S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis. Int. J. Microbiol. 2016, 2016, 9545693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  148. Hosseinpour, M.; Mobini-dehkordi, M.; Saffar, B.; Teimori, H. Antiproliferative effects of Matricaria chamomilla on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. HerbMed Pharmacol. 2013, 2, 49–51. [Google Scholar]
  149. Osman, M.Y.; Taie, H.A.A.; Helmy, W.A.; Amer, H. Screening for antioxidant, antifungal, and antitumor activities of aqueous extracts of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla). Egypt. Pharm. J. 2016, 15, 55–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Seyedjavadi, S.S.; Khani, S.; Zare-Zardini, H.; Halabian, R.; Goudarzi, M.; Khatami, S.; Imani Fooladi, A.A.; Amani, J.; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. Isolation, functional characterization, and biological properties of MCh-AMP1, a novel antifungal peptide from Matricaria chamomilla L. Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 2019, 93, 949–959. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  151. Hajaji, S.; Sifaoui, I.; López-Arencibia, A.; Reyes-Batlle, M.; Jiménez, I.A.; Bazzocchi, I.L.; Valladares, B.; Akkari, H.; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Piñero, J.E. Leishmanicidal activity of α-bisabolol from Tunisian chamomile essential oil. Parasitol. Res. 2018, 2855–2867. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  152. Hajaji, S.; Alimi, D.; Jabri, M.A.; Abuseir, S.; Gharbi, M.; Akkari, H. Anthelmintic activity of Tunisian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) against Haemonchus contortus. J. Helminthol. 2018, 92, 168–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  153. Mansour, S.A.; El-Sharkawy, A.Z.; Abdel-Hamid, N.A. Toxicity of essential plant oils, in comparison with conventional insecticides, against the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål). Ind. Crops Prod. 2015, 63, 92–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  154. Al-Jabr, A.M. Toxicity and repellency of seven plant essential oils to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrioidae). Sci. J. King Faisal Univ. 2006, 7, 49–60. [Google Scholar]
  155. Abd El-Moneim, M.; Ali, F.S.; Turky, A.F. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2012, 2, 24–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  156. Khodadad, P.; Mehdi, R. Biological activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile) flowers’ extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (Acari Ixodidae). J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 2007, 8, 693–696. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  157. Romero, M.D.C.; Valero, A.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Navarro-Moll, M.C. Activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil against anisakiasis. Phytomedicine 2012, 19, 520–523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  158. Hajaji, S.; Sifaoui, I.; López-Arencibia, A.; Reyes-Batlle, M.; Jiménez, I.A.; Bazzocchi, I.L.; Valladares, B.; Pinero, J.E.; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Akkari, H. Correlation of radical-scavenging capacity and amoebicidal activity of Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae). Exp. Parasitol. 2017, 183, 212–217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  159. Váradyová, Z.; Pisarčíková, J.; Babják, M.; Hodges, A.; Mravčáková, D.; Kišidayová, S.; Königová, A.; Vadlejch, J.; Várady, M. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts from medicinal-plants against Haemonchus contortus. Exp. Parasitol. 2018, 195, 71–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  160. Al-Mekhlafi, F.A.; Abutaha, N.; Al-Malki, A.M.; Al-Wadaan, M. Inhibition of the growth and development of mosquito larvae of Culexpipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) treated with extract from flower of Matricaria chamomilla (Asteraceae). Entomol. Res. 2020, 50, 138–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  161. Villa-Rodriguez, J.A.; Kerimi, A.; Abranko, L.; Williamson, G. German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) extract and its major ppolyphenols inhibit intestinal α-glycosidases in vitro. FASEB J. 2015, 29, LB323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  162. Hwang, S.H.; Wang, Z.; Quispe, Y.N.G.; Lim, S.S.; Yu, J.M. Evaluation of aldose reductase, protein glycation, and antioxidant inhibitory activities of bioactive flavonoids in Matricaria recutita L. and their structure-activity relationship. J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3276162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  163. Franco, R.R.; da Silva Carvalho, D.; de Moura, F.B.R.; Justino, A.B.; Silva, H.C.G.; Peixoto, L.G.; Espindola, F.S. Antioxidant and anti-glycation capacities of some medicinal plants and their potential inhibitory against digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018, 215, 140–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Romeilah, R.M. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Matricaria chamomilla L. and Marjorana hortensis essential oils. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2009, 4, 332–339. [Google Scholar]
  165. Kamali, A.M.; Nikseresht, M.; Delaviz, H.; Barmak, M.J.; Servatkhah, M.; Ardakani, M.T.; Mahmoudi, R. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Matricaria chamomilla root extract in Human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Life Sci. J. 2014, 11, 403–406. [Google Scholar]
  166. Fraihat, A.; Alatrash, L.; Abbasi, R.; Abu-Irmaileh, B.; Hamed, S.; Mohammad, M.; Abu-Rish, E.; Bustanji, Y. Inhibitory effects of methanol extracts of selected plants on the proliferation of two human melanoma cell lines. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 2018, 17, 1081–1086. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  167. Wu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Yao, L. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 2012, 15, 37–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  168. Ortiz, M.I.; Cariño-Cortés, R.; Ponce-Monter, H.A.; González-García, M.P.; Castañeda-Hernández, G.; Salinas-Caballero, M. Synergistic interaction of Matricaria chamomilla extract with diclofenac and indomethacin on carrageenan-induced aw inflammation in rats. Drug Dev. Res. 2017, 78, 360–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  169. Ionita, R.; Postu, P.A.; Mihasan, M.; Gorgan, D.L.; Hancianu, M.; Cioanca, O.; Hritcu, L. Ameliorative effects of Matricaria chamomilla L. hydroalcoholic extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats: A behavioral and molecular study. Phytomedicine 2018, 47, 113–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  170. Rabiei, A.; Moghtadaei, M.; Mokhtari, S.; Rafieian-Kopaei, M. Matricaria chamomilla essential oil with physical training improves passive avoidance memory. Iran. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2018, 83, 83–91. [Google Scholar]
  171. Moshfegh, A.; Setorki, M. Neuroprotective effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on motor dysfunction induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in Rat. Zahedan J. Res. Med. Sci. 2017, 19, 69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  172. Can, Ö.D.; Özkaya, Ü.D.; Kıyanb, H.T.; Demircib, B. Psychopharmacological profile of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice. Phytomedicine 2012, 19, 306–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  173. Abdullahzadeh, M.; Matourypour, P.; Naji, S.A. Investigation effect of oral chamomilla on sleep quality in elderly people in Isfahan: A randomized control trial. J. Educ. Health Promot. 2017, 6, 53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Sorme, F.M.; Tabarrai, M.; Alimadady, H.; Rahimi, R.; Sepidarkish, M.; Karimi, M. Efficacy of Matricaria chamomilla L. in infantile colic: A double blind, placebo controlled randomized trial. J. Pharm. Res. Int. 2019, 31, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  175. Momeni, H.; Sadeghi, H.; Salehi, A. Comparison of Matricaria chamomilla oil, Trachyspermum copticum oil and Clonidin on withdrawal syndrome in narcotics anonymous. J. Sabzevar Univ. Med. Sci. 2018, 25, 185–194. [Google Scholar]
  176. Amsterdam, J.D.; Li, Q.S.; Xie, S.X.; Mao, J.J. Putative antidepressant effect of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oral extract in subjects with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and depression. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2020, 26, 813–819. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  177. Ebrahimi, H.; Mardani, A.; Basirinezhad, M.H.; Hamidzadeh, A.; Eskandari, F. The effects of Lavender and Chamomile essential oil inhalation aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and stress in older community-dwelling people: A randomized controlled trial. Explore 2021, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  178. Gholami, A.; Tabaraei, Y.; Ghorat, F.; Khalili, H. The effect of inhalation of Matricaria chamomile essential oil on patients’anxiety before esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Govaresh 2018, 22, 232–238. [Google Scholar]
  179. Shoara, R.; Hashempur, M.H.; Ashraf, A.; Salehi, A.; Dehshahri, S.; Habibagahi, Z. Efficacy and safety of topical Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) oil for knee osteoarthritis: A randomizedcontrolled clinical trial. Complement. Ther. Clin. Pract. 2015, 21, 181–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  180. Zargaran, A.; Borhani-Haghighi, A.; Salehi-Marzijarani, M.; Faridi, P.; Daneshamouz, S.; Azadi, A.; Sadeghpour, H.; Sakhteman, A.; Mohagheghzadeh, A. Evaluation of the effect of topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oleogel as pain relief in migraine without aura: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Neurol. Sci. 2018, 39, 1345–1353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  181. Aradmehr, M.; Azhari, S.; Ahmadi, S.; Azmoude, E. The effect of chamomile cream on episiotomy pain in primiparous women: A randomized clinical trial. J. Caring Sci. 2017, 6, 19–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  182. Heidarifard, S.; Amir Ali Akbari, S.; Mojab, F.; Shakeri, N. Effect of Matricaria Camomilla aroma on severity of first stage labor ain. J. Clin. Nurs. Midwifery 2015, 4, 23–31. [Google Scholar]
  183. Saghafi, N.; Rhkhshandeh, H.; Pourmoghadam, N.; Pourali, L.; Ghazanfarpour, M.; Behrooznia, A.; Vafisani, F. Effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract on pain control of cyclic mastalgia: A double-blind randomised controlled trial. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2018, 38, 81–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  184. Khalesi, Z.B.; Beiranvand, S.P.; Bokaie, M. Efficacy of chamomile in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A systematic review. J. Pharmacopunct. 2019, 22, 204–209. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  185. Niazi, A.; Moradi, M. The effect of chamomile on pain and menstrual bleeding in primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review. Int. J. Community Based Nurs. Midwifery 2021, 9, 174–186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  186. Johari, H.; Sharifi, E.; Mardan, M.; Kafilzadeh, F.; Hemayatkhah, V.; Kargar, H.; Nikpoor, N. The effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla flower on the pituitary-gonadal axis and ovaries of rats. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011, 9, 330–334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  187. Soltani, M.; Moghimian, M.; Abtahi-Eivari, S.H.; Shoorei, H.; Khaki, A.; Shokoohi, M. Protective effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on torsion/detorsion-induced tissue damage and oxidative stress in adult rat testis. Int. J. Fertil. Steril. 2018, 12, 242–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  188. Soltani, M.; Moghimian, M.; Abtahi, H.; Shokoohi, M. The protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on histological damage and oxidative stress induced by torsion/detorsion in adult rat ovary. Int. J. Women’s Health Reprod. Sci. 2017, 5, 187–192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  189. Alahmadi, A.A.; Alzahrani, A.A.; Ali, S.S.; Alahmadi, B.A.; Arab, R.A.; El-Shitany, N.A.E.-A. Both Matricaria chamomilla and metformin extract improved the function and histological structure of thyroid gland in polycystic ovary syndrome rats through antioxidant mechanism. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  190. Alahmadi, A.A.; Alahmadi, B.A.; Wahman, L.F.; El-Shitany, N.A. Chamomile flower extract ameliorates biochemical and histological kidney dysfunction associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2021, 28, 6158–6166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  191. Ali, A.A.; Alattar, S.A. Study the protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla flower extract against the toxicity of Entamoeba histolytica induces liver and renal dysfunctions in adult albino male rats. Iraqi J. Sci. 2018, 59, 832–838. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  192. Farouk, M.; Abokora, S.; Ali, A.-F. Protective effect of Matricaria Chamomilla extract on hepatic-renal toxicity of ceftriaxone in rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2017, 5, 44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  193. Cemek, M.; Kaǧa, S.; Şimşek, N.; Büyükokuroǧlu, M.E.; Konuk, M. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of Matricaria chamomilla L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Nat. Med. 2008, 62, 284–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  194. Najla, O.A.; Olfat, A.K.; Kholoud, S.R.; Enas, N.D.; Hanan, I.S.A. Hypoglycemic and biochemical effects of Matricaria chamomilla leave extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Health Sci. 2012, 2, 43–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Fazili, A.; Gholami, S.; Sheikhpour, M.; Pousti, P. Therapeutic effects of in vivo-differentiated stem cell and Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil in diabetic rabbit. J. Diabetes Metab. Disord. 2020, 19, 453–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  196. Ramadan, K.S.; Emam, M.A. Biochemical evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Matricaria chamomilla leave extract studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Res. Manag. Technol. 2012, 2, 298–302. [Google Scholar]
  197. El Joumaa, M.M.; Taleb, R.I.; Rizk, S.; Jamilah, M.B. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract against 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer in mice. J. Complement. Integr. Med. 2020, 17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  198. Nouri, M.H.K.; Abad, A.N.A. Antinociceptive effect of Matricaria chamomilla on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2012, 6, 24–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  199. Ortiz, M.I.; Fernández-martínez, E.; Soria-jasso, L.E.; Lucas-gómez, I.; Villagómez-ibarra, R.; González-garcía, M.P.; Castañeda-hernández, G.; Salinas-caballero, M. Isolation, identification and molecular docking as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors of the main constituents of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract and its synergistic interaction with diclofenac on nociception and gastric damage in rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2016, 78, 248–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Borhan, F.; Naji, A.; Vardanjani, M.M.; Sasani, L. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla on the severity of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy. Sci. J. Hamadan Nurs. Midwifery Fac. 2017, 25, 140–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  201. Ghamchini, V.M.; Salami, M.; Mohammadi, G.R.; Moradi, Z.; Kavosi, A.; Movahedi, A.; Bidkhori, M.; Aryaeefar, M.R. The effect of chamomile tea on anxiety and depression in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. J. Young Pharm. 2019, 11, 309–312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  202. Khadem, E.; Shirazi, M.; Janani, L.; Rahimi, R.; Amiri, P.; Ghorat, F. Effect of topical chamomile oil on postoperative bowel activity after cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial. J. Res. Pharm. Pract. 2018, 7, 128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  203. Park, S.H.; Kim, D.S.; Oh, J.; Geum, J.-H.; Kim, J.-E.; Choi, S.-Y.; Kim, J.H.; Cho, J.Y. Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) ameliorates muscle atrophy in mice by targeting protein catalytic pathways, myogenesis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2021, 49, 1493–1514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  204. Ortiz-Bautista, R.J.; García-González, L.L.; Ocádiz-González, M.A.; Flores-Tochihuitl, J.; García-Villaseñor, A.; González-Hernández, M.; Muñoz-Hernández, L.; del Ortiz-Figueroa, M.C.; Ramírez-Anaya, M.; Reyna-Téllez, S.; et al. Matricaria chamomilla (aqueous extract) improves atopic dermatitis-like lesions in a murine model. Rev. Med. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc. 2017, 55, 587–593. [Google Scholar]
  205. Garbossa, W.A.C.; Campos, P.M.B.G.M. Euterpe oleracea, Matricaria chamomilla, and Camellia sinensis as promising ingredients for development of skin care formulations. Ind. Crops Prod. 2016, 83, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  206. Jiménez Delgado, J.; Madrigal Rojas, J.; Salazar Barrantes, S. Tratamiento con manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla), para reducción de las ojeras. Rev. Médica Univ. Costa Rica 2009, 3, 7833. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  207. Morales-Bozo, I.; Ortega-Pinto, A.; Rojas Alcayaga, G.; Aitken Saavedra, J.P.; Salinas Flores, O.; Lefimil Puente, C.; Lozano Moraga, C.; Manríquez Urbina, J.M.; Urzúa Orellana, B. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) saliva substitute in the relief of xerostomia in elders. Gerodontology 2017, 34, 42–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  208. Goes, P.; Dutra, C.S.; Lisboa, M.R.P.; Gondim, D.V.; Leitão, R.; Brito, G.A.C.; Rego, R.O. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. J. Oral Sci. 2016, 58, 569–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  209. Braga, A.S.; de Simas, L.L.M.; Pires, J.G.; Souza, B.M.; de Melo, F.P.d.S.R.; Saldanha, L.L.; Dokkedal, A.L.; Magalhães, A.C. Antibiofilm and anti-caries effects of an experimental mouth rinse containing Matricaria chamomilla L. extract under microcosm biofilm on enamel. J. Dent. 2020, 99, 103415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  210. Tadbir, A.A.; Pourshahidi, S.; Ebrahimi, H.; Hajipour, Z.; Memarzade, M.R.; Shirazian, S. The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract in orabase on minor aphthous stomatitis, a randomized clinical trial. J. Herb. Med. 2015, 5, 71–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  211. Can, E.; Kizak, V.; Özçiçek, E.; Seyhaneyildiz Can, Ş. The efficacy of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) oil as a promising anaesthetic agent for two freshwater aquarium fish species. Isr. J. Aquac. Bamidgeh 2017, 69, 1–8. [Google Scholar]
  212. Rogosic, J.; Saric, T.; Zupan, I. Effect of Achillea Millefolium L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. on consumption of Juniperus Oxycedrus L. and J. Phoenicea L. by goats. Ann. Anim. Sci. 2015, 15, 119–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  213. Caleja, C.; Barros, L.; Antonio, A.L.; Ciric, A.; João, C.M.; Sokovic, M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Santos-buelga, C.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Development of a functional dairy food: Exploring bioactive and preservation effects of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). J. Funct. Foods 2015, 16, 114–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  214. Majeed, H.; Bian, Y.-Y.; Ali, B.; Jamil, A.; Majeed, U.; Khan, Q.F.; Iqbal, K.J.; Shoemaker, C.F.; Fang, Z. Essential oil encapsulations: Uses, procedures, and trends. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 58449–58463. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  215. Negahdary, M.; Omidi, S.; Eghbali-Zarch, A.; Mousavi, S.A.; Mohseni, G.; Moradpour, Y.; Rahimi, G. Plant synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Matricaria chamomilla plant and evaluation of its antibacterial and antifungal effects. Biomed. Res. 2015, 26, 794–799. [Google Scholar]
  216. Sharifi-Rad, M.; Nazaruk, J.; Polito, L.; Morais-Braga, M.F.B.; Rocha, J.E.; Coutinho, H.D.M.; Salehi, B.; Tabanelli, G.; Montanari, C.; Contreras, M.M.; et al. Matricaria genus as a source of antimicrobial agents: From farm to pharmacy and food applications. Microbiol. Res. 2018, 215, 76–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  217. Hajizadeh-Sharafabad, F.; Varshosaz, P.; Jafari-Vayghan, H.; Alizadeh, M.; Maleki, V. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and diabetes mellitus, current knowledge and the way forward: A systematic review. Complemen. Therap. Med. 2020, 48, 102284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  218. Chauhan, R.; Singh, S.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, A.; Kumari, A.; Rathore, S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, S. A Comprehensive Review on Biology, Genetic Improvement, Agro and Process Technology of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Plants 2022, 11, 29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Figure 1. Biological properties of Matricaria chamomilla.
Figure 1. Biological properties of Matricaria chamomilla.
Life 12 00479 g001
Figure 2. Structure of terpenoids identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Figure 2. Structure of terpenoids identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Life 12 00479 g002
Figure 3. Structure of phenolic compounds identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Figure 3. Structure of phenolic compounds identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Life 12 00479 g003aLife 12 00479 g003b
Figure 4. Structure of flavonoids identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Figure 4. Structure of flavonoids identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Life 12 00479 g004aLife 12 00479 g004b
Figure 5. Structure of coumarins compounds identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Figure 5. Structure of coumarins compounds identified in Matricaria chamomilla.
Life 12 00479 g005
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

El Mihyaoui, A.; Esteves da Silva, J.C.G.; Charfi, S.; Candela Castillo, M.E.; Lamarti, A.; Arnao, M.B. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): A Review of Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Uses. Life 2022, 12, 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040479

AMA Style

El Mihyaoui A, Esteves da Silva JCG, Charfi S, Candela Castillo ME, Lamarti A, Arnao MB. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): A Review of Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Uses. Life. 2022; 12(4):479. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040479

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Mihyaoui, Amina, Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva, Saoulajan Charfi, María Emilia Candela Castillo, Ahmed Lamarti, and Marino B. Arnao. 2022. "Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): A Review of Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Uses" Life 12, no. 4: 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040479

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop