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Article

Experimental Setting for Applying Mechanical Stimuli to Study the Endothelial Response of Ex Vivo Vessels under Realistic Pathophysiological Environments

1
Unitat de Biofísica i Bioenginyeria, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2
CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Heart Diseases Biomedical Research Group, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
5
Heart Failure Unit, Department of Cardiology, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
6
Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adrian Neagu
Life 2021, 11(7), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070671
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
This paper describes the design, construction and testing of an experimental setting, making it possible to study the endothelium under different pathophysiological conditions. This novel experimental approach allows the application of the following stimuli to an ex vivo vessel in a physiological bath: (a) a realistic intravascular pressure waveform defined by the user; (b) shear stress in the endothelial layer since, in addition to the pressure waveform, the flow through the vessel can be independently controlled by the user; (c) conditions of hypo/hyperoxia and hypo/hypercapnia in an intravascular circulating medium. These stimuli can be applied alone or in different combinations to study possible synergistic or antagonistic effects. The setting performance is illustrated by a proof of concept in an ex vivo rabbit aorta. The experimental setting is easy to build by using very low-cost materials widely available. Online Supplement files provide all the technical information (e.g., circuits, codes, 3D printer drivers) following an open-source hardware approach for free replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioreactor; vessel mechanics; experimental physiology; mechanical stimuli; hypoxia; open-source hardware bioreactor; vessel mechanics; experimental physiology; mechanical stimuli; hypoxia; open-source hardware
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osuna, A.; Ulldemolins, A.; Sanz-Fraile, H.; Otero, J.; Farré, N.; Farré, R.; Almendros, I. Experimental Setting for Applying Mechanical Stimuli to Study the Endothelial Response of Ex Vivo Vessels under Realistic Pathophysiological Environments. Life 2021, 11, 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070671

AMA Style

Osuna A, Ulldemolins A, Sanz-Fraile H, Otero J, Farré N, Farré R, Almendros I. Experimental Setting for Applying Mechanical Stimuli to Study the Endothelial Response of Ex Vivo Vessels under Realistic Pathophysiological Environments. Life. 2021; 11(7):671. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Osuna, Ana, Anna Ulldemolins, Hector Sanz-Fraile, Jorge Otero, Núria Farré, Ramon Farré, and Isaac Almendros. 2021. "Experimental Setting for Applying Mechanical Stimuli to Study the Endothelial Response of Ex Vivo Vessels under Realistic Pathophysiological Environments" Life 11, no. 7: 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070671

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