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Review

Structure, Activity, and Function of the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a

1
Cancer Research Cancer of Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France
2
Inserm U1052, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France
3
CNRS UMR5286, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France
4
Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Hadat-Beirut 90565, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Albert Jeltsch and Arunkumar Dhayalan
Life 2021, 11(10), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101082
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure, Activity, and Function of Protein Methyltransferases)
G9a is a lysine methyltransferase catalyzing the majority of histone H3 mono- and dimethylation at Lys-9 (H3K9), responsible for transcriptional repression events in euchromatin. G9a has been shown to methylate various lysine residues of non-histone proteins and acts as a coactivator for several transcription factors. This review will provide an overview of the structural features of G9a and its paralog called G9a-like protein (GLP), explore the biochemical features of G9a, and describe its post-translational modifications and the specific inhibitors available to target its catalytic activity. Aside from its role on histone substrates, the review will highlight some non-histone targets of G9a, in order gain insight into their role in specific cellular mechanisms. Indeed, G9a was largely described to be involved in embryonic development, hypoxia, and DNA repair. Finally, the involvement of G9a in cancer biology will be presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: G9a; GLP; H3K9 methylation; protein lysine methylation; EHMT2; EHMT1; protein post-translational modification; cancer G9a; GLP; H3K9 methylation; protein lysine methylation; EHMT2; EHMT1; protein post-translational modification; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poulard, C.; Noureddine, L.M.; Pruvost, L.; Le Romancer, M. Structure, Activity, and Function of the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a. Life 2021, 11, 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101082

AMA Style

Poulard C, Noureddine LM, Pruvost L, Le Romancer M. Structure, Activity, and Function of the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a. Life. 2021; 11(10):1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poulard, Coralie, Lara M. Noureddine, Ludivine Pruvost, and Muriel Le Romancer. 2021. "Structure, Activity, and Function of the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a" Life 11, no. 10: 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101082

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