The human C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 (CTDSP1/SCP1) is a protein phosphatase with a conserved catalytic site of DXDXT/V. CTDSP1’s major activity has been identified as dephosphorylation of the 5th Ser residue of the tandem heptad repeat of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (RNAP II CTD). It is also implicated in various pivotal biological activities, such as acting as a driving factor in repressor element 1 (RE-1)-silencing transcription factor (REST) complex, which silences the neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells, G1/S phase transition, and osteoblast differentiation. Recent findings have denoted that negative regulation of CTDSP1 results in suppression of cancer invasion in neuroglioma cells. Several researchers have focused on the development of regulating materials of CTDSP1, due to the significant roles it has in various biological activities. In this review, we focused on this emerging target and explored the biological significance, challenges, and opportunities in targeting CTDSP1 from a drug designing perspective.
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