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Article

The Development of a Gracilis and Quadriceps Tendons Calibration Device for Uniaxial Tensile Tests

1
Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Slavonski Brod, University of Slavonski Brod, 35000 Slavonski Brod, Croatia
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Machines 2021, 9(12), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120364
Received: 8 November 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Bioengineering Technology)
To determine the biomechanical properties of the distal tendon of the gracilis muscle and the upper third of the quadriceps femoris muscle used for reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), it is necessary to develop a calibration device for specimen preparation for uniaxial tensile tests. The need to develop this device also stems from the fact that there is currently no suitable regulatory or accurate protocol by which soft tissues such as tendons should be tested. In recent studies, various methods have been used to prepare test specimens, such as the use of different ratios of gauge lengths, different gripping techniques, etc., with the aim of obtaining measurable and comparable biomechanical tissue properties. Since tendons, as anisotropic materials, have viscoelastic properties, the guideline for manufacturing calibrator devices was the ISO 527-1:1993 standard, used for testing polymers, since they also have viscoelastic behaviour. The functionality of a calibrator device was investigated by preparing gracilis and quadriceps tendon samples. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology was used for the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. The proposed calibrator could operate in two positions, horizontal and vertical. The maximum gauge length to be achieved was 60 mm, with the maximum tendon length of 120 mm. The average preparation time was 3 min per tendon. It was experimentally proven that it is possible to use a calibrator to prepare tendons for tensile tests. This research can help in the further development of soft tissue testing devices and also in the establishment of standards and exact protocols for their testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: calibration; gracilis; quadriceps; tendon; uniaxial tensile test calibration; gracilis; quadriceps; tendon; uniaxial tensile test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grgić, I.; Karakašić, M.; Ivandić, Ž.; Jurčević Lulić, T. The Development of a Gracilis and Quadriceps Tendons Calibration Device for Uniaxial Tensile Tests. Machines 2021, 9, 364. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120364

AMA Style

Grgić I, Karakašić M, Ivandić Ž, Jurčević Lulić T. The Development of a Gracilis and Quadriceps Tendons Calibration Device for Uniaxial Tensile Tests. Machines. 2021; 9(12):364. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120364

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grgić, Ivan, Mirko Karakašić, Željko Ivandić, and Tanja Jurčević Lulić. 2021. "The Development of a Gracilis and Quadriceps Tendons Calibration Device for Uniaxial Tensile Tests" Machines 9, no. 12: 364. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9120364

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