# Selected Aspects of Precision Machining on CNC Machine Tools

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

_{2}O

_{3}. A flat surface was machined. Such an experiment has not been feasible until now. The experiment was divided into two days. On the first day, the machining time was 4 h. It is a long enough time to create a temperature-steady state. On the second day, with a cold tool and cold machine tool, we continued where we left off on the first day. This is how we monitored the accuracy of the dimensions of the workpiece on the plane surface. We have achieved the following: The average interface depth achieved values of 0.007089 mm and 0.003667 mm for cold and heated spindles, respectively. It means that when the spindle is not heated, the depth of the interface is higher by 93% (almost double the depth). The average standard deviation of the interface depth is 0.001683 mm and 0.000997 mm for cold and heated spindles, respectively. It means that when the spindle is not heated, the process is not as stable, and the standard deviation is higher by 69%.

## 1. Introduction

- -
- Geometric inaccuracies of the used means, machines, tools, and preparations. They are inaccuracies of dimensions and shapes such as flatness, cylindricity, conicity, perpendicularity, deviations from the paraboloid, hyperboloid, deviations from the involute, etc.
- -
- Arbitrary inhomogeneity of the workpiece, e.g., chemical composition, structure, existence of voltage, temperature, electric, ultrasonic, or other fields.
- -
- Static or dynamic deviations of the desired relative position of the material (piece) and the cutting edge of the tool in the machine’s coordinate system. For example, mistakes, lack of definition of moving parts, the vibration of a member of the system, or transmission from the surroundings.
- -
- Loss of geometric shape (deformation) of members of the work system due to technological forces, heat, and erosion (wear and tear—loss of particles).
- -
- Deformations of the workpiece due to the release of internal stresses and the action of external forces. Internal stresses can be released by material removal, structural changes, removal, etc.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. The Machine Tool

#### 2.2. The Cutting Tool

#### 2.3. The Workpiece

_{2}O

_{3}) ceramic block with dimensions 100 × 100 × 25 mm was used. The square surface was machined. Erowa vice was used as a fixature. It is a precise and reliable clamping device, ideal for industrial applications. There were parallel sides of the workpiece for used clamping.

#### 2.4. The Cutting Conditions

_{p}) 0.02 mm, radial depth of cut (a

_{e}) 50% (12 mm), cutting speed (v

_{c}) 400 m/min, feed rate (v

_{f}) 1000 mm/min, see Table 4.

#### 2.5. The Strategy of Machining

#### 2.6. Description of the Strategy of Machining Movements Divided into Two Days

#### 2.7. The Measurement Conditions

## 3. Results

_{p}.

_{p}” in graphical interpretation cannot be highlighted in the Z-axis in ACCTeePRO software, version 5.0.15.0, because the software is causally increasing both parameters in the record.

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Finding 1

#### 4.2. Finding 2

#### 4.3. Finding 3

#### 4.4. Finding 4

## 5. Conclusions

- -
- The generation of heat during machining is an accompanying phenomenon.
- -
- Heat is generated in the process of chip formation, but also in the machine tool in all moving parts of the machine tool, such as the spindle, guide surfaces, etc.
- -
- Heat is removed to colder areas. After some time, stabilization will occur.
- -
- The principle for finishing follows from the experiment and that finishing must be carried out in one shot, in one sequence, without interrupting machining.
- -
- The magnitude of the resulting inaccuracy for the machining method presented in this article will depend on many variables. The biggest variable is the machine tool itself and, above all, the accuracy of its execution with regard to temperature compensations.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**Scheme of the measuring procedure. Note: The dimensions of the ceramic Al

_{2}O

_{3}plate is 100 × 100 × 25 mm and the distance between interfaces is 12 mm.

**Figure 7.**The profile of the interfaces at significant positions: (

**a**) A, (

**b**) B, (

**c**) C, (

**d**) D, (

**e**) E, and (

**f**) F.

**Figure 9.**Scheme of the measuring procedure and marked maximum and minimum. First day of machining, we started on track F, followed by tracks E and D. Second day of machining, we started on track C and followed tracks B and A.

Linear Movements X/Y/Z [mm] | Velocity of Working Feed Rate [mm/min] | Rotation Movements A/C [°] | Velocity of Rotational Motions, Max [rpm] | Acceleration of Movements [g] | Accuracy of Positioning [μm] |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

201/201/281.1 | 40,000 | −10.514° to 130.486°/not limited | 200 | 2 | ±2.5 |

**Table 2.**Characteristics of spindle, tool, clamping system of the ultrasonic five-axis machine, Ultrasonic 20 linear.

Spindle Speed, Max [rpm] | Performance of the Machine at Top Spindle Speed [kW] | Torque Momentum [Nm] | Frequency of Ultrasound [kHz] | Magazine of the Tools [number] | Pneumatic Clamping System |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

42,000 | 15 | 6 | 20 ÷ 30 | 24 | HSK 32 E/S |

Diameter [mm] | Length of Active Part [mm] | Whole Length [mm] | Harmonic Frequency [kHz] | Vertical Amplitude [μm] | Horizontal Amplitude [μm] |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

24.096 | 6 | 112.285 | 21.6 | 10 | 0 |

Diameter of Tool [mm] | Depth of Cut a_{p}[mm] | Radial Depth of Cut a_{e}[%]/[mm] | Cutting Speed v_{c}[m/min] | Cutting Feed Rate v_{f}[mm/min] |
---|---|---|---|---|

24.096 | 0.02 | 50/12 | 400 | 1000 |

1. Phase | 2. Phase | 2. Phase | 3. Phase | 4. Phase | 4. Phase |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Without cutting | Continual cutting process | Without cutting | Continual cutting process | ||

Idling spindle | The machine did not work | ||||

Time of heating | Time of continual cutting | The final temperature of the spindle | Time without cutting, cooling time of spindle | Time of continual cutting | The final temperature of the spindle |

[h] | [h] | [°C] | [h] | [s] | [°C] |

4 | 4 | 35 | 16 | 20 | 23 |

Measure Length [mm] | Measure Speed [mm/s] | Temperature during Measurement [°C] | Humidity during Measurement [%] | Stylus Radius [mm] |
---|---|---|---|---|

80 | 0.3 | 20 | 60 | 0.002 |

Measurement Position | Measurement Profile [μm] | Average Value [μm] | Standard Deviation [μm] | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

y1 | y2 | y3 | |||

A | 11.8 | 10.1 | 7.9 | 9.933 | 1.955 |

B | 3.7 | 9.6 | 7.9 | 7.067 | 3.037 |

C | 4.3 | 4.3 | 4.2 | 4.267 | 0.058 |

D | 5.0 | 2.1 | 4.8 | 3.967 | 1.620 |

E | 3.7 | 3.1 | 2.9 | 3.233 | 0.416 |

F | 2.9 | 4.8 | 3.7 | 3.800 | 0.954 |

Average value [μm] | 5.233 | 5.667 | 5.233 |

Measurement Area | Measurement Profile y2 |
---|---|

[μm] | |

0 ÷ A | −6.6 |

A ÷ B | −11.7 |

B ÷ C | −14.6 |

C ÷ D | −17.0 |

D ÷ E | −9.2 |

E ÷ F | −12.6 |

F ÷ _ | −8.3 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Peterka, J.; Kuruc, M.; Kolesnyk, V.; Dehtiarov, I.; Moravcikova, J.; Vopat, T.; Pokorny, P.; Jurina, F.; Simna, V.
Selected Aspects of Precision Machining on CNC Machine Tools. *Machines* **2023**, *11*, 946.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11100946

**AMA Style**

Peterka J, Kuruc M, Kolesnyk V, Dehtiarov I, Moravcikova J, Vopat T, Pokorny P, Jurina F, Simna V.
Selected Aspects of Precision Machining on CNC Machine Tools. *Machines*. 2023; 11(10):946.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11100946

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Peterka, Jozef, Marcel Kuruc, Vitalii Kolesnyk, Ivan Dehtiarov, Jana Moravcikova, Tomas Vopat, Peter Pokorny, Frantisek Jurina, and Vladimir Simna.
2023. "Selected Aspects of Precision Machining on CNC Machine Tools" *Machines* 11, no. 10: 946.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11100946