# Optimization and Realization of the Coordination Control Strategy for Extended Range Electric Vehicle

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Fuzzy Adaptive PID Controller

#### 2.2. Bench Test System

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Simulation Results of Working Condition Switching

#### 3.2. Test Results of the Fuzzy PID Control Optimization

#### 3.2.1. Speed/Torque Characteristics

#### 3.2.2. Fuel Consumption Characteristics

#### 3.2.3. Emission Characteristics

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- Based on the fuzzy adaptive PID control strategy, the power performance, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the extended range electric vehicle were greatly improved.
- (2)
- The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control, the fuzzy adaptive PID control significantly reduced the speed overshoot in the process of condition switching, and the control performance optimization effect was obvious. Additionally, the experimental results verify the optimization of the fuzzy adaptive PID control. Compared with the traditional PID control, the fuzzy PID control significantly reduced the fluctuation in the speed and torque. Especially in the process of speed and torque reduction, in switching 3 and switching 4, the overshoot rate of the fuzzy PID control speed was 2.8% and 0.7%, respectively, while the overshoot rate of the torque was less than 0.8%, which was significantly smaller than the traditional PID control.
- (3)
- Comparing the fuel consumption between the two control methods, the fuel consumption of the fuzzy PID control was lower, especially in the process of increasing the speed and torque, where the fuel consumption of the fuzzy adaptive PID control was 2.1% and 0.5% lower than that of the traditional PID control, respectively, and the fuzzy PID control achieved a stabler switching process.
- (4)
- Comparing the emission characteristics between the two control methods, the NOx emissions based on the fuzzy PID control were higher than those of the traditional PID control; the emission of particles of the fuzzy PID control was less than that of the traditional PID control, especially during the process of increasing the speed and torque, where the number of particles of the fuzzy PID control was 11% and 19% less than that of the traditional PID control, respectively.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of the simulation model: (

**a**) The model of the Fuzzy_PID sub-system; (

**b**) Simplified model for the comparison between the fuzzy PID controller and the PID controller.

**Figure 3.**Simulation results of the range extender switching process: (

**a**) Total switching process of the range extender; (

**b**) The switching process of increasing the speed and torque with an increased power demand; (

**c**) The switching process of speed and torque reduction with a power demand reduction.

**Figure 4.**Variation in speed and torque during the process of working condition switching: (

**a**) Change in speed during switching 1. (

**b**) Change in torque during switching 1. (

**c**) Change in speed during switching 2. (

**d**) Change in torque during switching 2. (

**e**) Change in speed during switching 3. (

**f**) Change in torque during switching 3. (

**g**) Change in speed during switching 4. (

**h**) Change in torque during switching 4.

**Figure 5.**Engine fuel consumption characteristics in the process of working condition switching: (

**a**) switching 1; (

**b**) switching 2; (

**c**) switching 3; (

**d**) switching 4.

**Figure 6.**The NOx emission characteristics in the process of working condition switching: (

**a**) switching 1; (

**b**) switching 2; (

**c**) switching 3; (

**d**) switching 4; (

**e**) overall switching process.

**Figure 7.**Particulate emission characteristics in the process of working condition switching: (

**a**) switching 1; (

**b**) switching 2; (

**c**) switching 3; (

**d**) switching 4.

$\mathbf{Control}\text{}\mathbf{Parameters}\text{}\mathit{e}$ | ${\mathit{e}}_{\mathit{c}}$ | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

NB | NM | NS | ZO | PS | PM | PB | ||

$\Delta {K}_{P}$ | NB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB |

NM | PB | PM | PM | PM | PM | PM | PB | |

NS | PS | PM | PM | PS | PM | PM | PS | |

ZO | ZO | ZO | ZO | ZO | ZO | ZO | ZO | |

PS | PS | PM | PM | PS | PM | PM | PS | |

PM | PB | PM | PM | PM | PM | PM | PB | |

PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | |

$\Delta {K}_{I}$ | NB | NB | NB | NM | NB | NM | NB | NB |

NM | NB | NB | NM | NM | NM | NB | NB | |

NS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | |

ZO | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | PB | |

PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | PS | |

PM | NB | NB | NM | NB | NM | NB | NB | |

PB | NB | NB | NM | NM | NM | NB | NB |

Project | Parameter |
---|---|

Number of cylinders | 4 |

Engine displacement (L) | 1.85 |

Cylinder diameter × stroke (mm) | 80 × 92 |

Compression ratio | 18.5 |

Calibration power/speed (kW)/(r/min) | 70/3000 |

Maximum torque/speed (N·m)/(r/min) | 244/2400 |

Emission | China V vehicle emission standard |

Test Equipment | Model | Accuracy |
---|---|---|

Particle size analyzer | TSI EEPS-3090 | - |

Conventional gas analyzer | HORIBA OBS-2200 | ±0.3% |

Dilution system | Dekati DI-2000 | - |

Fuel consumption meter | ToCeil-CMF | <0.1% |

Working Condition | Initial Speed (r·min^{−1})and Torque (N·m) | End Speed (r·min^{−1})and Torque (N·m) |
---|---|---|

Switching 1 | Minimum power point 1263/122 | Minimum fuel consumption power point 2000/200 |

Switching 2 | Minimum fuel consumption power point 2000/200 | Maximum power point 3090/215 |

Switching 3 | Maximum power point 3090/215 | Minimum fuel consumption power point 2000/200 |

Switching 4 | Minimum fuel consumption power point 2000/200 | Minimum power point 1263/122 |

**Table 5.**Speed and torque overshoot during switching between the traditional PID and fuzzy PID working conditions.

Items | Operating Mode Switching | Parameters | PID | The Fuzzy PID |
---|---|---|---|---|

speed | Switching 1 | Overshoot | 85 | 24 |

Overshoot rate (%) | 4.2 | 1.2 | ||

Switching 2 | Overshoot | 66 | −7 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 2.1 | 0.2 | ||

Switching 3 | Overshoot | −107 | 56 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 5.3 | 2.8 | ||

Switching 4 | Overshoot | −83 | −9 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 6.6 | 0.7 | ||

torque | Switching 1 | Overshoot | 7.7 | 3.4 |

Overshoot rate (%) | 3.8 | 1.7 | ||

Switching 2 | Overshoot | 8.8 | 7.9 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 4.1 | 3.6 | ||

Switching 3 | Overshoot | −11 | 0.9 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 5.5 | 0.45 | ||

Switching 4 | Overshoot | −13.5 | −0.9 | |

Overshoot rate (%) | 11.1 | 0.74 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhao, K.; Lou, D.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, L.
Optimization and Realization of the Coordination Control Strategy for Extended Range Electric Vehicle. *Machines* **2022**, *10*, 297.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050297

**AMA Style**

Zhao K, Lou D, Zhang Y, Fang L.
Optimization and Realization of the Coordination Control Strategy for Extended Range Electric Vehicle. *Machines*. 2022; 10(5):297.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050297

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhao, Keqin, Diming Lou, Yunhua Zhang, and Liang Fang.
2022. "Optimization and Realization of the Coordination Control Strategy for Extended Range Electric Vehicle" *Machines* 10, no. 5: 297.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050297