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We prove that a linear operator of a complex Banach space has a shadowable point if and only if it has the shadowing property. In addition, every equicontinuous linear operator does not have the shadowing property and its spectrum is contained in the unit circle. Finally, we prove that if a linear operator is expansive and has the shadowing property, then the origin is the only nonwandering point.
The dynamics of linear operators on Banach spaces has been studied in the literature . For instance, Eisenberg and Hedlund [2,3] characterized uniformly expansive operators in terms of spectral theory, and Ombach  as well as Bernardes et al.  tried to obtain a similar result for operators with the shadowing property. In this paper, we will continue the study of the dynamics of such operators. Indeed, we prove that a linear operator has a shadowable point (in the sense of Reference ) if and only if it has the shadowing property. Moreover, we prove that an equicontinuous linear operator has no shadowing property and its spectrum is contained in the unit circle. Finally, it is proved that every expansive linear operator with the shadowing property does not have nonzero nonwandering points. Let us state these results in a precise way.
Hereafter, X will denote a Banach space (all such spaces will be complex). By a linear operator, we mean an operator bounded one-to-one onto a linear map with a bounded inverse. Given a , a δ-pseudo-orbit of a linear operator T is a bi-infinite sequence of X such that for every . We say that T has the shadowing property if for every there is such that every -pseudo orbit can be ε-shadowed i.e., there is such that for every . The following pointwise version of the shadowing property is given in Reference . Some authors have recently been studying it [7,8,9]. We say that is shadowable if for every there is such that every -pseudo orbit throughx (i.e., ) can be -shadowed. Clearly, if T has the shadowing property, then every point is shadowable. This motivates our first result.
A linear operator of a Banach space has a shadowable point if and only if it has the shadowing property.
On the other hand, a linear operator T is equicontinuous if for every there is such that if and , then for every . The spectrum of a linear operator T is the set of those such that is not invertible.
Every equicontinuous linear operator of a Banach space does not have the shadowing property and its spectrum is contained in the unit circle.
Finally, we recall that a linear operator of a Banach space is expansive if for each with there is such that . This definition is equivalent to the classical notion of expansivity on metric spaces . It is known that an expansive linear operator with the shadowing property does exist on finite or infinite dimensional Banach spaces and that all of them are uniformly expansive, i.e., there is such that for every with . Indeed, every hyperbolic linear operator (i.e, the spectrum does not intersect the unit complex circle) is expansive with the shadowing property (e.g., Reference ).
On the other hand, linear operators with the shadowing property may have nonzero nonwandering points. Recall that a nonwandering point of a linear operator is a point such that for every neighborhood U of x there is satisfying . Every linear operator has at least one nonwandering point (e.g., the origin ) and for hyperbolic operators this is the only one. Now we can state our last result.
If a linear operator is expansive and has the shadowing property, then the origin is the only nonwandering point.
The authors would like to thank the participants of the dynamical system seminar at the math department of the Chungnam National University at Daejeon, Korea, for helpful conversations.
2. Proof of the Theorems
Theorem 1 is actually contained in the following result. Hereafter, X denotes a Banach space and denotes the set of linear operators .
The following properties are equivalent for every .
T has the shadowing property.
T has a shadowable point.
0 is a shadowable point of T.
Obviously Item (1) implies Item (2). To prove Item (2) implies Item (3), let x be a shadowable point. First, we show that is shadowable. Let and be given by the shadowableness of x. Let be a -pseudo orbit through . It follows that and , for every . Set . Then, and for every proving that is a -pseudo orbit through x. It follows that there is such that for every . Then,
proving that is shadowable. Now, let and be given by the shadowableness of of . Let be a -pseudo orbit through 0. Define . It follows that and
It follows that there is such that for every . Therefore, taking we get
Finally, we prove that Item (3) implies Item (1). Let and be given by the shadowableness of 0. Let be a -pseudo orbit and define for all . Then, and
for every . It follows that is a -pseudo orbit through 0. Hence, there is such that for every . It follows that satisfies
for every proving Item (1). This completes the proof of the theorem. ☐
To prove Theorem 2, we first observe that is equicontinuous if and only if for every there is such that implies for every . Another equivalence is as follows.
The following properties are equivalent for every :
To prove that Item (1) implies Item (2), let be given by the equicontinuity of T for . Suppose that is unitary, i.e., . Then, and so for every . From this, we get for every and every unitary vector x proving Item (2). Conversely, suppose Item (2) and take such that for every . Fix and set . Then, if , so for every proving for every . Therefore, T is equicontinuous and Item (1) holds. ☐
Denote by the unit circle in and by the spectrum of .
By applying Lemma 1 and Proposition 1.31 in Reference  (or Item (ii) of Proposition 3.2 in Reference ), we obtain the following corollary.
If is equicontinuous, then .
To complete the proof of Theorem 2, we only need to prove the following lemma. Recall that a linear isometry of a Banach space is a distance preserving linear operator.
Every linear isometry of a Banach space does not have the shadowing property.
Let X be a Banach space and be a linear isometry. Suppose by contradiction that T has the shadowing property. Fix from the equicontinuity of T for . Take . Choose a sequence such that for every . Define by
one has that is a -pseudo orbit of T. Then, there is such that for every . Since T is an isometry, for every . In particular, and , so
We conclude that for every which is absurd. This completes the proof. ☐
Proof of Theorem2.
Let X be a Banach space and be equicontinuous. Define
Clearly, is a norm of X and for every . On the other hand, by Lemma 1, there is such that for every . It follows that for all so for every . This proves that and are equivalent, i.e.,
Define equipped with the norm . By Equation (1), we have that is a Banach space. Define as being T in the Banach space . Since
we have that is a linear isometry. In addition, we have that the identity is a linear homeomorphism by Equation (1), which satisfies . In particular, T has the shadowing property if and only if has the shadowing property. But is an isometry, so it cannot have the shadowing property by Lemma 2. Then, T cannot have the shadowing property and the proof follows. ☐
Proof of Theorem3.
Let be an expansive linear operator with the shadowing property of a Banach space. Suppose by contradiction that T has a nonwandering point . Take from the shadowing property for . Shrinking if necessary, we can assume . Since is nonwandering, there are and such that and .
Define the sequence for and . Since , we have that is a -pseudo orbit. It follows that there is such that
From this we get
for every and . Since , the sequence is bounded. Since T is expansive, by Proposition 19-(c) in Reference . Then, Equation (2) implies for every . By taking , we obtain . Therefore,
which is absurd. This completes the proof. ☐
Authors contribution was the same for both.
The first author was supported by Chungnam National University, and the second by CNPq-Brazil-303389/2015-0.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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