Next Article in Journal
U-Pb Ages, O Isotope Compositions, Raman Spectrum, and Geochemistry of Cassiterites from the Xi’ao Copper-Tin Polymetallic Deposit in Gejiu District, Yunnan Province
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of High-Order Simulations on the Simultaneous Stochastic Optimization of Mining Complexes
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Microcrystalline Apatite Minerals: Mechanochemical Activation for Agricultural Application

School of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Zibo Tsingda Powder Material Engineering Co, Ltd., Zibo 255000, China
Functional Materials Laboratory (FML), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055, China
School of Materials and metallurgy, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
Tianjin Eco-city Municipal Landscape Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300467, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 211;
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
PDF [3844 KB, uploaded 31 March 2019]


Phosphate minerals of apatite from three mines with different amounts of gangue minerals were activated by milling to increase their microcrystallinity and subsequent dissolution in a citric acid solution to serve as slow-release fertilizers for agricultural production. XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), and SEM (Scanning electron microscope) were employed to characterize the properties of the prepared samples, such as changes in microcrystallinity, mineral composition, lattice structure, and granule morphology during the milling. With prolonged milling time, accompanied with the progress in microcrystallinity, the ratio of the formed amorphous compositions increased, resulting in higher dissolution in citric acid solution. In the case of carrot plants, the addition of the microcrystalline phosphate rock together with phosphorus bacteria allowed an efficient nutrient (P, K, and N) uptake as high as 77.0%, 36.7%, and 32.2%, which increased by 91.3%, 123.0%, and 105.2%, respectively, from the growth on an original soil without any addition, demonstrating clear contribution of the activated apatites in agricultural production. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate mineral; mechanochemical process; slow-release fertilizer; lattice structure; granule morphology phosphate mineral; mechanochemical process; slow-release fertilizer; lattice structure; granule morphology

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.-M.; Hu, C.; He, Z.-Q.; Abbas, Y.; Li, Y.; Lv, L.-F.; Hao, X.-Y.; Gai, G.-S.; Huang, Z.-H.; Yang, Y.-F.; Yun, S.-N. Microcrystalline Apatite Minerals: Mechanochemical Activation for Agricultural Application. Minerals 2019, 9, 211.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top