Next Article in Journal
The Geochemistry and Bioturbation of Clay Sediments Associated with Amalgamated Crusts at the Gagua Ridge
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Inlet Velocity on the Separation Performance of a Two-Stage Hydrocyclone
Previous Article in Journal
Utilisation of Water-Washing Pre-Treated Phosphogypsum for Cemented Paste Backfill
Previous Article in Special Issue
Separation of Monazite from Placer Deposit by Magnetic Separation
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCase Report

Heavy Mineral Sands in Brazil: Deposits, Characteristics, and Extraction Potential of Selected Areas

Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-908, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030176
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Separation and Enrichment)
  |  
PDF [4658 KB, uploaded 13 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

In Brazil, heavy mineral sand deposits are still barely exploited, despite some references to Brazilian reserves and ilmenite concentrate production. The goal of this project is to characterize and investigate the potential recovery of heavy minerals from selected Brazilian placer occurrences. Two areas of the coastal region were chosen, in Piaui state and in Bahia Provinces. In all samples, the heavy minerals of interest (ilmenite, monazite, rutile, and zircon) were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and also quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The total heavy minerals (THM) in the Piaui samples were 6.45% and 10.14% THM, while the figure for the Bahia sample was 3.4% THM. The recovery test of the Bahia sample, using only physical separation equipment such as a shaking table and magnetic separator, showed valuable metallurgical recoveries at around or greater than 70% for each stage, and the final concentrate of pure ilmenite was composed of up to 60.0% titanium dioxide after the differential magnetic separation. Another aim is to compile accessible information about Brazilian heavy mineral main deposits complemented with a short economic overview. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy mineral sands; Brazilian occurrences; SEM analysis; XRF analysis heavy mineral sands; Brazilian occurrences; SEM analysis; XRF analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gonçalves, C.C.; Braga, P.F.A. Heavy Mineral Sands in Brazil: Deposits, Characteristics, and Extraction Potential of Selected Areas. Minerals 2019, 9, 176.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top