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Heavy Mineral Sands in Brazil: Deposits, Characteristics, and Extraction Potential of Selected Areas

Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-908, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 176;
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Separation and Enrichment)
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In Brazil, heavy mineral sand deposits are still barely exploited, despite some references to Brazilian reserves and ilmenite concentrate production. The goal of this project is to characterize and investigate the potential recovery of heavy minerals from selected Brazilian placer occurrences. Two areas of the coastal region were chosen, in Piaui state and in Bahia Provinces. In all samples, the heavy minerals of interest (ilmenite, monazite, rutile, and zircon) were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and also quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The total heavy minerals (THM) in the Piaui samples were 6.45% and 10.14% THM, while the figure for the Bahia sample was 3.4% THM. The recovery test of the Bahia sample, using only physical separation equipment such as a shaking table and magnetic separator, showed valuable metallurgical recoveries at around or greater than 70% for each stage, and the final concentrate of pure ilmenite was composed of up to 60.0% titanium dioxide after the differential magnetic separation. Another aim is to compile accessible information about Brazilian heavy mineral main deposits complemented with a short economic overview. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy mineral sands; Brazilian occurrences; SEM analysis; XRF analysis heavy mineral sands; Brazilian occurrences; SEM analysis; XRF analysis

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Gonçalves, C.C.; Braga, P.F.A. Heavy Mineral Sands in Brazil: Deposits, Characteristics, and Extraction Potential of Selected Areas. Minerals 2019, 9, 176.

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