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Minerals 2019, 9(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020085

Heavy Mineral Variability in the Yellow River Sediments as Determined by the Multiple-Window Strategy

1
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
2
School of Geography, Geomatics and Planning, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract

In this study, heavy mineral analysis was carried out in different size fractions of the Yellow River sediment to extract its end-members. It shows that heavy mineral contents, species, and compositions vary in different grain sizes. Distribution curve of heavy mineral concentration (HMC) and particle size frequency curve are in normal distribution. In most samples, the size fraction of 4.5–5.0 Φ contains the maximum HMC (18% on average). Heavy mineral assemblages of the Yellow River are featured by amphibole + epidote + limonite + garnet. Amphibole content is high in coarse fraction of >3.0 Φ and reaches its peak value in 3.5–4.5 Φ. Epidote is rich in a size fraction of >3.5 Φ, and increase as the particle size becomes fine. Micas content is high in coarse subsamples of <3.0 Φ, but almost absent in fine grains of >4.0 Φ. Metallic minerals (magnetite, ilmenite, hematite, and limonite) increase as the sediment particle size become fine, and reach the peak in silt (>4.0 Φ). Other minerals such as zircon, rutile, tourmaline, garnet, and apatite account for about 15%, and mainly concentrate in fine sediment. Further analysis reveals that similarity value between the most abundant grain size group and wide window grain size group is high (0.978 on average). The grain size of 4.0–5.0 Φ ± 0.5 Φ is suitable to carry out detrital mineral analysis in the Yellow River sediments. Our study helps to eliminate cognitive bias due to narrow grain size strategy, and to provide heavy mineral end-members of the Yellow River sediment for provenance discrimination in the marginal seas of East China. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple-window strategy; grain size analysis; heavy mineral distribution; similarity; Yellow River estuary multiple-window strategy; grain size analysis; heavy mineral distribution; similarity; Yellow River estuary
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Jin, B.; Wang, M.; Yue, W.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Y. Heavy Mineral Variability in the Yellow River Sediments as Determined by the Multiple-Window Strategy. Minerals 2019, 9, 85.

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