Biomineralization Forming Process and Bio-inspired Nanomaterials for Biomedical Application: A Review
School of Mechanical Engineering & Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020068
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomineral Crystal Structure)
Biomineralization is a process in which organic matter and inorganic matter combine with each other under the regulation of living organisms. Because of the biomineralization-induced super survivability and retentivity, biomineralization has attracted special attention from biologists, archaeologists, chemists, and materials scientists for its tracer and transformation effect in rock evolution study and nanomaterials synthesis. However, controlling the biomineralization process in vitro as precisely as intricate biology systems still remains a challenge. In this review, the regulating roles of temperature, pH, and organics in biominerals forming process were reviewed. The artificially introducing and utilization of biomineralization, the bio-inspired synthesis of nanomaterials, in biomedical fields was further discussed, mainly in five potential fields: drug and cell-therapy engineering, cancer/tumor target engineering, bone tissue engineering, and other advanced biomedical engineering. This review might help other interdisciplinary researchers to bionic-manufacture biominerals in molecular-level for developing more applications of biomineralization.