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Open AccessArticle

Clay Minerals and Element Geochemistry of Clastic Reservoirs in the Xiaganchaigou Formation of the Lenghuqi Area, Northern Qaidam Basin, China

by Guoqiang Sun 1,2,*, Yetong Wang 1,3, Jiajia Guo 4, Meng Wang 1,3, Yun Jiang 1,3 and Shile Pan 1,3
1
Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development-Northwest, Petrochina, Lanzhou 730020, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(11), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9110678
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
We performed mineralogical and geochemical analyses of core samples from the Lenghuqi area in the northern marginal tectonic belt of the Qaidam Basin. The clay mineralogy of the Xiaganchaigou Formation sandstone is dominated by I + I/S + C types and characterized by high illite, a higher mixed-layer illite/smectite and chlorite, lesser smectite, and an absence of kaolinite. The clay minerals reflect that the Oligocene sedimentary basin formed in an arid-semi-arid climate with weak leaching and chemical weathering, and that diagenesis occurred in a K+- and Mg2+-rich alkaline environment. Measured major oxide concentrations show clear correlations. The lower Xiaganchaigou Formation is representative of a dry and cold freshwater sedimentary environment, whereas the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation is warmer and more humid. Trace element and rare earth element variations indicate that the paleoclimate conditions of the lower Xiaganchaigou Formation sedimentary period were relatively cold and dry, while the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation formed under warmer and more humid climate conditions. These findings reflect a global climate of a cold and dry period from the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and a short warming period in the late Oligocene.
Keywords: clay minerals; major elements; trace elements; sedimentary environment; diagenetic Environment; Qaidam Basin clay minerals; major elements; trace elements; sedimentary environment; diagenetic Environment; Qaidam Basin
MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, G.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Wang, M.; Jiang, Y.; Pan, S. Clay Minerals and Element Geochemistry of Clastic Reservoirs in the Xiaganchaigou Formation of the Lenghuqi Area, Northern Qaidam Basin, China. Minerals 2019, 9, 678.

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