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Ore Geology, Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry and H-O-S Isotopes of the Liyuan Gold Deposit, Central Taihang Mountains, North China Craton

1
School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences Beijing, 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources, Beijing 100012, China
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Development and Research Center, China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China
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Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China (Gansu Province), School of Earth Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
5
Geological Exploration Department, Regional Geological Survey Institute of Hebei Province, Langfang 065000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100606
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
The Liyuan gold deposit, located in the central Taihang Mountains, North China Craton, forms an important part of the Taihang polymetallogenic belt. The origin of ore-forming fluids and the genesis of this deposit remains controversial. In this paper, fluid inclusions (FIs) microthermometry and H-O-S isotopes analysis are conducted to constrain the origin of ore-forming fluids and genesis. The main findings are as follows: (1) Three hydrothermal metallogenic stages are identified: Quartz–pyrite, quartz–polymetallic sulfide, and quartz–carbonate stages; (2) three types of primary FIs are recognized: CO2-aqueous (type I), pure CO2 (type II), and aqueous FIs (type III); (3) ore-forming fluids are characterized by medium–low temperatures, medium–low salinity, and H2O-CO2-NaCl ± CH4 system; (4) H-O isotopes indicate that the ore-forming fluids mainly have a magmatic origin and late-stage ore fluids mixed with meteoric water; (5) S isotopes further confirm that the sulfides most likely have a deep magma source with variation caused by changes in oxygen fugacity; and (6) fluid immiscibility and water–rock interactions are considered to be the two main mechanisms of gold deposition. Due to the lack of large granite bodies exposed in this ore district, we infer that the fluids of gold deposit and quartz porphyry may have both been exsolved from a concealed granite pluton at deeper locations, and we further propose that Liyuan gold deposit is typical magmatic–hydrothermal gold deposits. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid inclusions; H-O-S isotopes; Liyuan gold deposit; central Taihang Mountains; North China Craton fluid inclusions; H-O-S isotopes; Liyuan gold deposit; central Taihang Mountains; North China Craton
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Zhu, X.; Wang, J.; Pang, Z.; Zhen, S.; Yang, F.; Xue, J.; Jia, H.; Shi, G. Ore Geology, Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry and H-O-S Isotopes of the Liyuan Gold Deposit, Central Taihang Mountains, North China Craton. Minerals 2019, 9, 606.

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