Next Article in Journal
Early Ordovician Age of Fluorite-Rare-Metal Deposits at the Voznesensky Ore District (Far East, Russia): Evidence from Zircon and Cassiterite U–Pb and Fluorite Sm–Nd Dating Results
Next Article in Special Issue
Elemental Concentrations of Major and Trace Elements in the Spring Waters of the Arctic Region of Russia
Previous Article in Journal
Editorial for Special Issue “Lattice-Preferred Orientation and Microstructures of Minerals and Their Implications for Seismic Anisotropy”
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sequential Extraction and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in River Sediments
Article

Reactive, Sparingly Soluble Calcined Magnesia, Tailor-Made as the Reactive Material for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barrier

Faculty of Materials, Metallurgy and Recycling, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ana Romero-Freire and Hao Qiu
Minerals 2021, 11(11), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111153
Received: 7 October 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elemental Concentration and Pollution in Soil, Water, and Sediment)
A laboratory method was designed and verified that allows for the testing of alkaline, magnesite-based reactive materials for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove heavy metals from contaminated groundwater. It was found that caustic calcined magnesia (CCM) with high reactivity and low solubility to remove Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Mn2+ cations from mixed aqueous solutions can be prepared by calcination at a suitable temperature and residence time. Regarding the solubility of both the reactive material itself and the precipitates formed, the CCM should contain just a limited content of lime. One way is the calcination of a ferroan magnesite at temperatures above 1000 °C. However, the decrease in pH is accompanied by lower efficiency, attributed to the solid-phase reactions of free lime. A different way is the calcination of magnesite under the conditions when CaCO3 is not thermally decomposed. The virtually complete removal of the heavy metals from the model solution was achieved using the CCM characterised by the fraction of carbonates decomposed of approximately 80% and with the highest specific surface area. CCM calcined at higher temperatures could also be used, but this would be associated with higher consumption of crude magnesite. Under the conditions considered in the present work, the product obtained by the calcination at 750 °C for 3 h appeared to be optimal. The full heavy metal removal was observed in this case using less magnesite, and, moreover, at a lower temperature (resulting, therefore, in a lower consumption of energy for the calcination and material handling). View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; heavy metal; precipitation; caustic calcined magnesia (CCM); permeable reactive barrier (PRB) groundwater; heavy metal; precipitation; caustic calcined magnesia (CCM); permeable reactive barrier (PRB)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fedoročková, A.; Raschman, P.; Sučik, G.; Švandová, M.; Doráková, A. Reactive, Sparingly Soluble Calcined Magnesia, Tailor-Made as the Reactive Material for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barrier. Minerals 2021, 11, 1153. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111153

AMA Style

Fedoročková A, Raschman P, Sučik G, Švandová M, Doráková A. Reactive, Sparingly Soluble Calcined Magnesia, Tailor-Made as the Reactive Material for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barrier. Minerals. 2021; 11(11):1153. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111153

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fedoročková, Alena, Pavel Raschman, Gabriel Sučik, Mária Švandová, and Agnesa Doráková. 2021. "Reactive, Sparingly Soluble Calcined Magnesia, Tailor-Made as the Reactive Material for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Groundwater Using Permeable Reactive Barrier" Minerals 11, no. 11: 1153. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111153

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop