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Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical, and Chemical Characterisation of Cretaceous–Paleogene/Neogene Kaolins within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins from Nigeria: Possible Industrial Applications

1
Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Osun State, Nigeria
2
Directorate of Research and Innovation, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
3
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080670
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Clays and Their Applications)
The demand for kaolinitic clays for various industrial applications is increasing globally. The present study evaluated the potential industrial applications of kaolins from the Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins, Nigeria. The colour, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particle size distribution (PSD), plastic limits and liquid limits of the kaolins were determined. Mineralogical properties were assessed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The chemical compositions of the kaolins were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The kaolins were generally acidic, with pH less than 7 with low EC. The moderate plasticity indices (PI ≥ 10%) for the kaolins suggested their potential use in the manufacturing of structural clay products without extrusion. Kaolinite was the only kaolin mineral present with anhedral–subhedral–euhedral crystals. The platy morphology of the kaolinites in the Cretaceous kaolins are very important in paper production. Other minerals present in the kaolins were quartz, muscovite, anatase and goethite. The major oxide contents of the kaolins were dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2. Based on chemical specifications, the raw kaolins are not suitable for most industrial applications except for the Cretaceous Lakiri kaolins in the paper and ceramic industries (except for TiO2 and K2O content). The study concluded that the kaolin deposits would require beneficiation for large-scale industrial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: kaolinite; applications; plasticity; morphology; major oxides kaolinite; applications; plasticity; morphology; major oxides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oyebanjo, O.; Ekosse, G.-I.; Odiyo, J. Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical, and Chemical Characterisation of Cretaceous–Paleogene/Neogene Kaolins within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins from Nigeria: Possible Industrial Applications. Minerals 2020, 10, 670. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080670

AMA Style

Oyebanjo O, Ekosse G-I, Odiyo J. Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical, and Chemical Characterisation of Cretaceous–Paleogene/Neogene Kaolins within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins from Nigeria: Possible Industrial Applications. Minerals. 2020; 10(8):670. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080670

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oyebanjo, Olaonipekun; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo; Odiyo, John. 2020. "Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical, and Chemical Characterisation of Cretaceous–Paleogene/Neogene Kaolins within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins from Nigeria: Possible Industrial Applications" Minerals 10, no. 8: 670. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080670

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