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Open AccessArticle

Using Whole Rock and Zircon Geochemistry to Assess Porphyry Copper Potential of the Tonggou Copper Deposit, Eastern Tianshan

1
College of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830047, China
2
Xinjiang Key Laboratory for Geodynamic Processes and Metallogenic Prognosis of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Urumqi 830047, China
3
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales 2052, Australia
4
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(7), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070584
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic–Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralizing Processes)
Eastern Tianshan hosts a number of porphyry Cu deposits. However, these mainly formed in the Jueluotage Belt, in the middle part of Eastern Tianshan. The Tonggou porphyry Cu mineralization is an exception to this, since it is located in the Bogda Orogenic Belt, north of Eastern Tianshan. We obtained new zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemical data, zircon Hf isotope data, and zircon trace element compositions. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating indicates a crystallization age of 302.2–303.0 Ma for the Tonggou mineralized granodiorite (TMG), which suggests that the Tonggou porphyry Cu mineralization formed in the Late Carboniferous period. εHf (t) data (1.8–14.1) for TMG suggests it was sourced from juvenile crustal melts, mixed with some mantle materials. TMG displays low ΣREE, compatible elements (Ba, Sr, Zr, and Hf), Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios, as well as clearly negative Eu anomalies in whole rocks analyses. In addition, TMG is enriched in P, Hf and Th/U ratios in zircon, and has lower crystallization temperatures (734 to 735 °C) than the Daheyan barren granodiorite (DBG) (753 to 802 °C). Whole rock and zircon geochemical analyses show that the TMG was formed by fractional crystallization to a greater extent than the DBG in the Bogda Orogenic Belt. Moreover, zircon grains of the TMG show high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios (159–286), which are consistent with related values from large porphyry deposits of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). High Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios reflect oxidizing magmas as a result of fractional crystallization, which indicates that the Tonggou deposit has potential to host a large porphyry Cu deposit.
Keywords: porphyry Cu mineralization; fractional crystallization; Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio in zircon; Tonggou deposit; Eastern Tianshan porphyry Cu mineralization; fractional crystallization; Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio in zircon; Tonggou deposit; Eastern Tianshan
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.-B.; Chai, F.-M.; Chen, C.; Quan, H.-Y.; Wang, K.-Y.; Li, S.-D.; Wu, S.-S. Using Whole Rock and Zircon Geochemistry to Assess Porphyry Copper Potential of the Tonggou Copper Deposit, Eastern Tianshan. Minerals 2020, 10, 584.

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