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Open AccessArticle

Diagenetic Pore Fluid Evolution and Dolomitization of the Silurian and Devonian Carbonates, Huron Domain of Southwestern Ontario: Petrographic, Geochemical and Fluid Inclusion Evidence

1
School of the Environment, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
2
Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON M4T 2S3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020140
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
Core samples from two deep boreholes were analyzed for petrographic, stable and Sr isotopes, fluid inclusion microthermometry and major, minor, trace and rare-earth elements (REE) of different types of dolomite in the Silurian and Devonian carbonates of the eastern side of the Michigan Basin provided useful insights into the nature of dolomitization, and the evolution of diagenetic pore fluids in this part of the basin. Petrographic features show that both age groups are characterized by the presence of a pervasive replacive fine-crystalline (<50 µm) dolomite matrix (RD1) and pervasive and selective replacive medium crystalline (>50–100 µm) dolomite matrix (RD2 and RD3, respectively). In addition to these types, a coarse crystalline (>500 µm) saddle dolomite cement (SD) filling fractures and vugs is observed only in the Silurian rocks. Results from geochemical and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the diagenesis of Silurian and Devonian formations show variations in terms of the evolution of the diagenetic fluid composition. These fluid systems are: (1) a diagenetic fluid system that affected Silurian carbonates and was altered by salt dissolution post-Silurian time. These carbonates show a negative shift in δ18O values (dolomite δ18O average: −6.72‰ VPDB), Sr isotopic composition slightly more radiogenic than coeval seawater (0.7078–0.7087), high temperatures (RD2 and SD dolomite Th average: 110 °C) and hypersaline signature (RD2 and SD dolomite average salinity: 26.8 wt.% NaCl eq.); and (2) a diagenetic fluid system that affected Devonian carbonates, possibly occurred during the Alleghenian orogeny in Carboniferous time and characterized by a less pronounced negative shift in δ18O values (dolomite δ18O average: −5.74‰ VPDB), Sr isotopic composition in range with the postulated values for coeval seawater (0.7078–0.7080), lower temperatures (RD2 dolomite Th average: 83 °C) and less saline signature (RD2 dolomite average salinity: 20.8 wt.% NaCl eq.). View Full-Text
Keywords: dolomitization; Huron Domain; Silurian; Devonian; fluid composition; Michigan Basin dolomitization; Huron Domain; Silurian; Devonian; fluid composition; Michigan Basin
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Tortola, M.; Al-Aasm, I.S.; Crowe, R. Diagenetic Pore Fluid Evolution and Dolomitization of the Silurian and Devonian Carbonates, Huron Domain of Southwestern Ontario: Petrographic, Geochemical and Fluid Inclusion Evidence. Minerals 2020, 10, 140.

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