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An Efficient VQ Codebook Search Algorithm Applied to AMR-WB Speech Coding

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, 57, Section 2, Zhongshan Road, Taiping District, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
Academic Editor: Vladimir Shpilrain
Symmetry 2017, 9(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9040054
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
The adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB) speech codec is widely used in modern mobile communication systems for high speech quality in handheld devices. Nonetheless, a major disadvantage is that vector quantization (VQ) of immittance spectral frequency (ISF) coefficients takes a considerable computational load in the AMR-WB coding. Accordingly, a binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ) algorithm is adopted to efficiently reduce the complexity of ISF quantization in AMR-WB. This search algorithm is done through a fast locating technique combined with lookup tables, such that an input vector is efficiently assigned to a subspace where relatively few codeword searches are required to be executed. In terms of overall search performance, this work is experimentally validated as a superior search algorithm relative to a multiple triangular inequality elimination (MTIE), a TIE with dynamic and intersection mechanisms (DI-TIE), and an equal-average equal-variance equal-norm nearest neighbor search (EEENNS) approach. With a full search algorithm as a benchmark for overall search load comparison, this work provides an 87% search load reduction at a threshold of quantization accuracy of 0.96, a figure far beyond 55% in the MTIE, 76% in the EEENNS approach, and 83% in the DI-TIE approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: vector quantization (VQ); binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ); immittance spectral frequency (ISF); adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB); speech codec; VoIP vector quantization (VQ); binary search space-structured VQ (BSS-VQ); immittance spectral frequency (ISF); adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB); speech codec; VoIP
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Yeh, C.-Y. An Efficient VQ Codebook Search Algorithm Applied to AMR-WB Speech Coding. Symmetry 2017, 9, 54.

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