Next Article in Journal
On the Incompleteness of Ibragimov’s Conservation Law Theorem and Its Equivalence to a Standard Formula Using Symmetries and Adjoint-Symmetries
Previous Article in Journal
Intelligent RFID Indoor Localization System Using a Gaussian Filtering Based Extreme Learning Machine
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Symmetry 2017, 9(3), 32;

Evaluation of Cyber Security and Modelling of Risk Propagation with Petri Nets

1,†,* and 2,†
Department of Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Cyber Security Laboratory, Military Communication Institute, ul. Warszawska 22a, 05-130 Zegrze, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Young-Sik Jeong
Received: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [795 KB, uploaded 28 February 2017]   |  


This article presents a new method of risk propagation among associated elements. On the
basis of coloured Petri nets, a new class called propagation nets is defined. This class provides
a formal model of a risk propagation. The proposed method allows for model relations between
nodes forming the network structure. Additionally, it takes into account the bidirectional relations
between components as well as relations between isomorphic, symmetrical components in various
branches of the network. This method is agnostic in terms of use in various systems and it can
be adapted to the propagation model of any systems’ characteristics; however, it is intentionally
proposed to assess the risk of critical infrastructures. In this paper, as a proof of concept example, we
show the formal model of risk propagation proposed within the project Cyberspace Security Threats
Evaluation System of the Republic of Poland. In the article, the idea of the method is presented as
well as its use case for evaluation of risk for cyber threats. With the adaptation of Petri nets, it is
possible to evaluate the risk for the particular node and assess the impact of this risk for all related
nodes including hierarchic relations of components as well as isomorphism of elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk assessment; risk propagation; Petri nets; propagation nets, formal methods risk assessment; risk propagation; Petri nets; propagation nets, formal methods

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Szpyrka, M.; Jasiul, B. Evaluation of Cyber Security and Modelling of Risk Propagation with Petri Nets. Symmetry 2017, 9, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top