Next Article in Journal
New Optimized Deep Learning Application for COVID-19 Detection in Chest X-ray Images
Previous Article in Journal
Characterizations of PR-Pseudo-Slant Warped Product Submanifold of Para-Kenmotsu Manifold with Slant Base
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Wheelchair Propulsion Wheel Rotation Angle Function Symmetry in the Propelling Phase: Motion Capture Research and a Mathematical Model
Article

The Symmetry of the Muscle Tension Signal in the Upper Limbs When Propelling a Wheelchair and Innovative Control Systems for Propulsion System Gear Ratio or Propulsion Torque: A Pilot Study

1
Institute of Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Paolo Ardigo
Symmetry 2022, 14(5), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14051002
Received: 7 April 2022 / Revised: 4 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 14 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Biomechanics)
Innovative wheelchair designs require new means of controlling the drive units or the propulsion transmission systems. The article proposes a signal to control the gear ratio or the amount of additional propulsion torque coming from an electric motor. The innovative control signal in this application is the signal generated by the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the muscles of the upper limbs, transformed by the central processing unit (CPU) into muscle activity (MA) when using a wheelchair. The paper includes research on eight muscles of the upper limbs that are active when propelling a wheelchair. Asymmetry in the value for MVC was found between the left and right limbs, while the belly of the long radial extensor muscle of the wrist was determined to be the muscle with the least asymmetry for the users under study. This pilot research demonstrates that the difference in mean MVCmax values between the left and the right limbs can range from 20% to 49%, depending on the muscle being tested. The finding that some muscle groups demonstrate less difference in MVC values suggests that it is possible to design systems for regulating the gear ratio or additional propelling force based on the MVC signal from the muscle of one limb, as described in the patent application from 2022, no. P.440187. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheelchair; maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); assistive technology; shifting gear; torque control; drive wheelchair; maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); assistive technology; shifting gear; torque control; drive
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Warguła, Ł.; Marciniak, A. The Symmetry of the Muscle Tension Signal in the Upper Limbs When Propelling a Wheelchair and Innovative Control Systems for Propulsion System Gear Ratio or Propulsion Torque: A Pilot Study. Symmetry 2022, 14, 1002. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14051002

AMA Style

Warguła Ł, Marciniak A. The Symmetry of the Muscle Tension Signal in the Upper Limbs When Propelling a Wheelchair and Innovative Control Systems for Propulsion System Gear Ratio or Propulsion Torque: A Pilot Study. Symmetry. 2022; 14(5):1002. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14051002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Warguła, Łukasz, and Agnieszka Marciniak. 2022. "The Symmetry of the Muscle Tension Signal in the Upper Limbs When Propelling a Wheelchair and Innovative Control Systems for Propulsion System Gear Ratio or Propulsion Torque: A Pilot Study" Symmetry 14, no. 5: 1002. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14051002

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop