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Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review

School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edwin Charles Constable
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 631;
Received: 16 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 14 March 2022 / Published: 21 March 2022
A considerable amount of ambient vibration energy spreads over an ultra-low frequency spectrum. However, conventional resonant-type linear energy harvesters usually operate within high and narrow frequency bands, which cannot match the frequencies of many vibration sources. If the excitation frequency deviates a bit from the natural frequency of an energy harvester, the energy harvesting performance will deteriorate drastically. Because of the ultra-low frequency characteristic, it is challenging to reliably harvest energy from the ambient vibrations. To address this mismatching issue, the ultra-low frequency ambient vibrations are converted into high-frequency oscillations using certain mechanical mechanisms, which are termed frequency up-conversion techniques. This paper reviews the existing approaches that can realize frequency up-conversion for enhancing energy harvesting from low-frequency vibration sources. According to their working mechanisms, the existing methods are classified into three categories: impact-based, plucking-based, and snap-through-based approaches. The working principles of the three approaches are explained in detail. Representative designs from all categories are reviewed. This overview on the state-of-the-art frequency up-conversion technology would guide the better design of future kinetic energy harvesting systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; frequency up-conversion; impact; plucking; snap-through energy harvesting; frequency up-conversion; impact; plucking; snap-through
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Hu, G.; Guo, Z.; Wang, J.; Yang, Y.; Liang, J. Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review. Symmetry 2022, 14, 631.

AMA Style

Li X, Hu G, Guo Z, Wang J, Yang Y, Liang J. Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review. Symmetry. 2022; 14(3):631.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xin, Guobiao Hu, Zhenkun Guo, Junlei Wang, Yaowen Yang, and Junrui Liang. 2022. "Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review" Symmetry 14, no. 3: 631.

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