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Review

Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review

1
School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China
2
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
3
College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
4
School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edwin Charles Constable
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030631
Received: 16 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 14 March 2022 / Published: 21 March 2022
A considerable amount of ambient vibration energy spreads over an ultra-low frequency spectrum. However, conventional resonant-type linear energy harvesters usually operate within high and narrow frequency bands, which cannot match the frequencies of many vibration sources. If the excitation frequency deviates a bit from the natural frequency of an energy harvester, the energy harvesting performance will deteriorate drastically. Because of the ultra-low frequency characteristic, it is challenging to reliably harvest energy from the ambient vibrations. To address this mismatching issue, the ultra-low frequency ambient vibrations are converted into high-frequency oscillations using certain mechanical mechanisms, which are termed frequency up-conversion techniques. This paper reviews the existing approaches that can realize frequency up-conversion for enhancing energy harvesting from low-frequency vibration sources. According to their working mechanisms, the existing methods are classified into three categories: impact-based, plucking-based, and snap-through-based approaches. The working principles of the three approaches are explained in detail. Representative designs from all categories are reviewed. This overview on the state-of-the-art frequency up-conversion technology would guide the better design of future kinetic energy harvesting systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; frequency up-conversion; impact; plucking; snap-through energy harvesting; frequency up-conversion; impact; plucking; snap-through
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Hu, G.; Guo, Z.; Wang, J.; Yang, Y.; Liang, J. Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review. Symmetry 2022, 14, 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030631

AMA Style

Li X, Hu G, Guo Z, Wang J, Yang Y, Liang J. Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review. Symmetry. 2022; 14(3):631. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xin, Guobiao Hu, Zhenkun Guo, Junlei Wang, Yaowen Yang, and Junrui Liang. 2022. "Frequency Up-Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting: A Review" Symmetry 14, no. 3: 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030631

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