Role of Power Converters in Inductive Power Transfer System for Public Transport—A Comprehensive Review
Abstract
:1. Introduction
 Autonomous—The wireless charging is autonomous. It will detect the vehicle automatically and charge.
 Weatherproof protection—The coil is buried under the road surface and not exposed to the atmosphere.
 Antivandalism—There is a much lower possibility of vandalizing the charging system.
 Foreign object detection—In case the foreign particle is present in between the coil, to optimize the power flow
 Preliminary cost of implementation
 Efficiency of the IPT system over connected charging
 Power density of the IPT system
2. Impact of Resonance Architectures
2.1. Higher Order Resonance
2.2. Second Order Resonance
 SeriesSeries (SS) resonance [48]
 SeriesParallel (SP) resonance [49]
 ParallelSeries (PS) resonance [50]
 ParallelParallel (PP) resonance [50]
2.3. Hybrid Resonance
3. Variation in Mutual Inductance
4. Variation in Resonance Frequency
5. Need of Power Converter Topologies
 Single phase full bridge inverter
 ClassE inverterbased IPT system
 Compact highefficiency IPT system
6. HBridge Inverter Based IPT System
 LCL resonance topology
 SLC resonance topology
 Highgain LCL resonance topology
6.1. LCLBased Resonance Topology
6.2. SLCBased Resonance Topology
6.3. HighGain LCL Topology
6.4. Relevant Experimental Waveforms
7. Direct AC–AC Conversion
7.1. Matrix Converter
7.2. Direct AC–AC Converter
8. ClassE Based IPT System
8.1. ClassE Inverter
8.2. ClassE^{2} WPT System
8.3. Coupling Circuit
9. Compact HighEfficiency IPT System
9.1. Equivalent Circuit
9.2. Experimental Waveforms
10. Comparison of Topologies
11. Future Trends
12. Conclusions
 The different circuit topologies were compared with different aspects in order to identify and discriminate the significance of each topology.
 It was observed that LCLbased resonance topology is preferred for a wide range of loads, whereas SLC is not suitable for light loaded applications.
 More semiconductor switches made the matrix converter complex in operation. However, it ensured the bidirectional power flow with highpower density.
 In the case of compactness and efficiency, compact highefficiency topology was more promising.
 Similarly, if the available input DC source voltage is lower, a highgain LCL topology is preferred.
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Standards  Specific Applications  Power Level  Frequency 

SAEJ2954  Electric vehicles  1.2 kW, 3.3 kW, 7.7 kW  79 kHz to 90 kHz 
Qi  Mobile phones and portable devices  5 W to 120 W  80 kHz to 300 kHz 
A4WP  For larger electromagnetic field  50 W  6.78 MHz 
WPT Technologies  

Features  Magnetic Resonant WPT (IPT)  Capacitive WPT  Microwave Power Transfer (MPT)  Optical WPT 
Working principle  Designed using the induction principle and comprising aircore coils  Power transfer by means of electric field generated in the area between two capacitors  The magnetron generates the microwave which is made to pass through a waveguide, after which it is radiated to the power electronics interface by the antenna  A laser diode generates the optical wave; the receiver, comprising of photovoltaic cells, convert the light into power which is then supplied to the power electronics interface 
Power Rating (Capacity)  High (maximum 100 kW)  Medium (maximum 7 kW)  Less than 250 W  Less than 500 W 
Efficiency  85–95%  80–85%  40–50%  1–15% 
Bidirectional power flow  Yes  Yes  No  No 
Gap between transmitter and receiver  Less than 30 cm  Less than 30 cm  Maximum 1 km  Maximum 1 km 
Cost  Moderate  Less  High  High 
Commercial availability  Available for static EVs  Development stage  No  No 
Commercial standards for WPT [26]  TTA Telecommunication Technology association TTAR06.162 (19 November 2015)  BWF Broadband Wireless Forum ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses ARIB STDT113 (2015)  BWF Broadband Wireless Forum ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses ARIB STDT113 (2015)  A4WP Alliance for Wireless Power and QI A4WP AND QI standards 
Safety and Compliance  All the WPT schemes must comply with the restrictions associated with the low frequency group as specified by the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 
Circuit Topologies  

Parameters  SS  SP  PS  PP 
Inverter voltage rating  Lower DC link voltage (More than SP)  Less DC link voltage  High voltage is needed in comparison with SS and SP  High voltage is needed in comparison with SS and SP 
Impedance(z)  Decrease along with misalignment  Decrease along with misalignment  Increases along with misalignment  Increases along with misalignment 
Output independent by load  Voltage and current  Voltage and current  Voltage  Current 
Efficiency for larger distance between coil  Low  Low  High  High 
Advantages  Output current is not dependent on the load at resonance and highpower transfer efficiency at higher frequencies  Small pickup coil selfinductance than SS, secondary parallel resonant converter gives stable current  Tuning is easy  Tuning is easy 
Drawbacks 
 DC components are not blocked 


Applications  Static and Dynamic IPT for EV  Biomedical Applications, Low power Transport  Highpower EV buses  Highpower EV buses 
Power level  High  Low and Medium  High  High 
Circuit Topologies  

Parameters  LCL  ClassE  LCL High Gain  SLC  Compact Efficient Topology 
Power  1 kW  50 W  1 kW  1 kW  1 kW 
Frequency  85 kHz  1–6 MHz  85 kHz  85 kHz  85 kHz 
Efficiency  76–90%  85–95%  74–87%  76–90%  79–93% 
Voltage Gain  0.25–0.5  0.7–1.1  0.6–2.1  0.3–0.7  0.5–1.8 
Semiconductor Devices  8  2  10  8  6 
Energy Storage Elements  9  8  10  9  9 
Voltage stress across the switch (inverter)  V_{dc}/2  2 V_{dc}  V_{dc}/2  V_{dc/2}  2 V_{dc} 
Coupling coefficient  0.1−0.25  0.05–0.15  0.1−0.25  0.1−0.25  0.1–0.3 
Preferred Load  Heavy Load  Light Load  Heavy Load  Light Load  Heavy & Light 
Complexity of circuit  Not Complex  Complex in Control  Not Complex  Complex in Control  Not Complex 
Compactness  Not Compact  Compact  Not Compact  Not Compact  Compact 
Preference for dynamic IPT  Preferred  Not Preferred  Preferred  Not Preferred for Light loads  Mostly Preferred 
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Varikkottil, S.; Lionel, F.D.J.; Srinivasan, M.K.; Williamson, S.; Kannan, R.; Izhar, L.I. Role of Power Converters in Inductive Power Transfer System for Public Transport—A Comprehensive Review. Symmetry 2022, 14, 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030508
Varikkottil S, Lionel FDJ, Srinivasan MK, Williamson S, Kannan R, Izhar LI. Role of Power Converters in Inductive Power Transfer System for Public Transport—A Comprehensive Review. Symmetry. 2022; 14(3):508. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030508
Chicago/Turabian StyleVarikkottil, Sooraj, Febin Daya John Lionel, Mohan Krishna Srinivasan, Sheldon Williamson, Ramani Kannan, and Lila Iznita Izhar. 2022. "Role of Power Converters in Inductive Power Transfer System for Public Transport—A Comprehensive Review" Symmetry 14, no. 3: 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030508