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Article

Particle-Based Dynamic Water Drops with High Surface Tension in Real Time

1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea
2
School of Software, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea
3
School of Software Application, Kangnam University, Yongin 16979, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Toshio Tagawa
Symmetry 2021, 13(7), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13071265
Received: 22 June 2021 / Revised: 10 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Computer and Engineering Science and Symmetry/Asymmetry)
Surface tension has a great influence on the shape of the fluid interface, and is an important physical characteristic in expressing not only liquids but also liquid metals such as mercury and gallium. In the field of physics-based particle fluid simulations, it is a challenging problem to express the high surface tension generated by fluid-air or fluid-solid interaction in real time. The main reasons for this are (1) The magnitude of the force that can be stably expressed in real-time fluid simulation is limited, so when the magnitude of the surface tension increases at a large time-step, the simulation stability decreases, and (2) If we use a small time-step, a stronger force can be expressed. However, it becomes difficult to operate in real time because the computational cost increases. Techniques were proposed to solve this problem for a few specific scenes, but there has not yet been a general approach that can reliably express high surface tension in various scenarios. In this paper, we propose a real-time particle-based fluid simulation framework that can efficiently and stably express high surface tension. Unlike the previous methods, we newly model the surface tension so that the strong surface tension force generated in the droplet area with a large curvature is applied evenly in the normal and tangent directions regardless of the size of the droplet. We also propose new pressure constraints that converge quickly and accurately using this force. Our method can be effectively used in various physics-based simulation scenarios because it can easily express and control surface tension effects that appear in materials such as liquid metal as well as water. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid simulations; high surface tension; dynamic water drops; particle-based fluids; real-time fluids fluid simulations; high surface tension; dynamic water drops; particle-based fluids; real-time fluids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.-H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, J.-H. Particle-Based Dynamic Water Drops with High Surface Tension in Real Time. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13071265

AMA Style

Kim K-H, Lee J, Kim C-H, Kim J-H. Particle-Based Dynamic Water Drops with High Surface Tension in Real Time. Symmetry. 2021; 13(7):1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13071265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Ki-Hoon, Jung Lee, Chang-Hun Kim, and Jong-Hyun Kim. 2021. "Particle-Based Dynamic Water Drops with High Surface Tension in Real Time" Symmetry 13, no. 7: 1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13071265

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