The purpose of this paper is to build a new bridge between category theory and a generalized probability theory known as noncommutative probability or quantum probability, which was originated as a mathematical framework for quantum theory, in terms of states as linear functional defined on category algebras. We clarify that category algebras can be considered to be generalized matrix algebras and that the notions of state on category as linear functional defined on category algebra turns out to be a conceptual generalization of probability measures on sets as discrete categories. Moreover, by establishing a generalization of famous GNS (Gelfand–Naimark–Segal) construction, we obtain a representation of category algebras of
-categories on certain generalized Hilbert spaces which we call semi-Hilbert modules over rigs. The concepts and results in the present paper will be useful for the studies of symmetry/asymmetry since categories are generalized groupoids, which themselves are generalized groups.
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