2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Device Fabrication
2.2. Device Measurement
3.1. Electrical Response Measurements
3.2. Testing for Experimental Artifacts
3.2.1. Stability over Time
3.2.2. Area Dependence
3.2.3. Array Dependence
3.2.4. Processing Dependence
3.2.5. Current Leakage through the Cavity
3.2.6. Electromagnetic Pickup
3.2.7. Thermoelectric Effects on Electrodes
3.2.8. Thermoelectric Effects on Devices
- We consider first the MIM device in the absence of the optical cavity and the mirror. Component A is produced by free-space ambient optical modes impinging on the upper electrode, where they excite hot electrons. These hot electrons are injected into the insulator and then are absorbed in the base electrode. Component B is due to electrons excited within the upper electrode, e.g., from plasmonic zero-point fluctuations . The electrons are injected into the insulator and then absorbed in the base electrode. Component C, in the opposite direction, is due to electrons that are excited by fluctuations within the base electrode, injected into the insulator, and then absorbed in the upper electrode. There is no optically excited current component of electrons from the base electrode to the upper electrode because the base electrode is thicker than the electron mean-free path length, and so any electrons excited at the outer (lower) surface of the electrode are scattered before reaching the insulator. In equilibrium, the net current is zero, and component C is balanced by the sum of components A and B.
- We now consider the MIM device in the presence of an adjoining optical cavity and the mirror. The addition of the adjoining structure upsets the balance in current components. Because the cavity reduces the density of the optical modes impinging on the upper electrode, component A is reduced while components B and C remain unchanged. This results in a net electron current from the base electrode to the upper electrode, which is consistent with our observations.
- In examining the balance of current components when the MIM device is not perturbed by the presence of the optical cavity and mirror, we consider first the device in the absence of the cavity structure. To maintain the zero net current, this increase in photoinjection yield with changing layer thickness must be balanced by a decrease in the internally generated component B or an increase in the internally generated component C. These changes in components B and C result from the thickness changes and are independent of whether there is an adjoining optical cavity or not.
- We once again consider the MIM device in the presence of an adjoining optical cavity and mirror. With the reintroduction of this adjoining structure, the enhanced photoinjection yield represented by component A now leads to a greater suppression of component A. Because of the greater reduction in component A, the net electron current from the base electrode to the upper electrode is enhanced. Thus, increasing the photoinjection yield leads to an enhanced current that is induced by the presence of an adjoining optical cavity, in the direction opposite to the photoinjection current.
- Additional components result from the fact that the insulator itself forms a very thin optical cavity. This cavity is symmetric with respect to the MIM structure itself, as opposed to the optical cavity shown in the figure, which is to one side of the MIM structure. Because there is no longer a cavity having a reduced density of vacuum modes on one side of the tunneling region, the current components in each direction balance each other out, resulting in no net current. This is consistent with the observation that MIM structures without the adjoining optical cavity do not produce a current, as shown in Figure 8.
- Another component results from the upper electrode being slightly transparent. As a result, a small fraction of the optical radiation from the optical cavity impinges on the lower electrode and produces hot carriers. Because the optical transmission through the upper electrode is small, this produces only negligible effects.
- Additional effects, such as those from the surface plasmon modes in the cavity , cannot be ruled out.
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|4 (b)||0.02||1||0.9||8.3||33–1100||PMMA or SiO2|
|5 (a) 1||10,000||2.3 + 0.4 resist||2.3||8.7–24||11||SiO2|
|5 (b) 1||625||2.3 + 0.4 resist||0.7–1.5||15||11||SiO2|
|6 (b)||25–10,000||2.3 + 0.4 resist||2.3||12||11||SiO2|
|7 (b)||0.02 × 16||1||0.9||15.6||107||PMMA|
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Moddel, G.; Weerakkody, A.; Doroski, D.; Bartusiak, D. Optical-Cavity-Induced Current. Symmetry 2021, 13, 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030517
Moddel G, Weerakkody A, Doroski D, Bartusiak D. Optical-Cavity-Induced Current. Symmetry. 2021; 13(3):517. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030517Chicago/Turabian Style
Moddel, Garret, Ayendra Weerakkody, David Doroski, and Dylan Bartusiak. 2021. "Optical-Cavity-Induced Current" Symmetry 13, no. 3: 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030517