The accurate segmentation of retinal images is a basic step in screening for retinopathy and glaucoma. Most existing retinal image segmentation methods have insufficient feature information extraction. They are susceptible to the impact of the lesion area and poor image quality, resulting in the poor recovery of contextual information. This also causes the segmentation results of the model to be noisy and low in accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes a multi-scale and multi-branch convolutional neural network model (multi-scale and multi-branch network (MSMB-Net)) for retinal image segmentation. The model uses atrous convolution with different expansion rates and skip connections to reduce the loss of feature information. Receiving domains of different sizes captures global context information. The model fully integrates shallow and deep semantic information and retains rich spatial information. The network embeds an improved attention mechanism to obtain more detailed information, which can improve the accuracy of segmentation. Finally, the method of this paper was validated on the fundus vascular datasets, DRIVE, STARE and CHASE datasets, with accuracies/F1 of 0.9708/0.8320, 0.9753/0.8469 and 0.9767/0.8190, respectively. The effectiveness of the method in this paper was further validated on the optic disc visual cup DRISHTI-GS1 dataset with an accuracy/F1 of 0.9985/0.9770. Experimental results show that, compared with existing retinal image segmentation methods, our proposed method has good segmentation performance in all four benchmark tests.
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