According to the perfection of action categories of Parsons, it is inevitable to have deep doubts in every society and between layers of a particular society. However, “there is no ideal society in the sense that Marx defines, within each society the definition of ideal changes according to the place of a person within the society. By those who are at the top layer, the society is defined as ideal, by those at the lowest layer, it is far from being ideal, and by those in the mid-layer, who can sometimes be completely ignorant of what is an ideal society, it can be described as a fluctuating phenomenon depending on circumstances. Therefore, we always have a neutrosophic ideal society with an opposite and neutral triad. Naturally, this is valid for all societies since there are always people with more privileges than the others. Even in any a democratic society, some people have more privileges although they may form a small minority” [4
Parsons developed a theory of action to explain how the macro and micro aspects of a particular social order show structural integrity together with the participation of its members. He took into account the voluntary participation of the individual in the social life on one hand, and structural continuity on the other. Here, it is assumed that the individual acts under the motivation of the social structure while taking action. According to him, social sciences should consider a trio considering the purposes, ends and ideals when examining actions.
Grand Theory of Action
The basic paradigm of Parson viewed society as a general system of action is based on the understanding of ‘rational social action’ of Weber [28
]. However, according to Weber, sociology is a science that tries its interpretive understanding of social action to achieve a causal explanation of its course and its effects [36
This interpretation is enriched from the perspective of the sociologist. Thus, social actions become neutrosophic. Others may agree, partially agree or disagree (1, 0, 0). Likewise, in the theory of Parson, the possibility of all members of society to participate in social values and norms that regulate, and guide human relations rather than individual activities is questionable, uncertain. Here we must see neutrosophic triplets.
According to Parson’s theory, all social actions are based on five pattern variables. These:
Affectivity versus affective neutrality;
Self-orientation versus collective orientation;
Universalism versus particularism;
Quality versus performance;
Specificity versus diffuseness.
Parsons believes that these variables classify expectations and the structure of relationships, making the intangible action theory more understandable. However, according to Parsons, pattern variables are twofold, and each pattern variable indicates a problem or riddle that must be solved by the actor before the action can be performed. At the same time, there is a wide variety between the traditional society and the modern society. However, these can be seen as binary for neutrosophic sociological analysis (1, 0), it is very difficult to determine which of the individual’s behaviors are modern or traditional. Therefore, each of them should be considered as triple neutrosophic (1, 0, 0). The feminists’ response to Parsons’ family view can be given as an example. According to Parsons, the instrumental leadership role in the family structure in modern societies should be given to the spouse–father, on which the family’s reputation and income are based [32
]. However, according to feminists, this statement by Parsons is nothing more than the continuation of the status quo [35
]. In addition, these pattern variables (stereotypes) do not say how people will behave when faced with role conflict, and we will once again encounter uncertainty. This uncertainty can only be answered by neutrosociology.
The society model that Parsons has compared to the biologic model of an organism is based on the understanding of “living systems” that continues in a balanced way. According to him, a change in any part of the social system leads to adaptive changes in other parts [33
]. There are four main problems an all-action system must solve. These are adaptation, goal-attainment, integration and latent pattern maintenance (AGIL). In short, these are referred to as AGIL in Table 1
“Adaptation” (A) is concerned with meeting the needs of the system from its environment and how resources are distributed within the system. Here, the system should provide sufficient resources from the environment and distribute it within itself. Social institutions are related to interrelated social rules and roles system that will meet social needs or functions and help solve social system problems. For example, economy, political order, law, religion, education and family are basic institutions for these. If a social system will continue to live, it needs structures and organizations that will function to adapt to its environment. The most dominant of these institutions is the economy. In “achieving the goal” (G), it is determined that the system reaches the specific target and which of these targets has priority. In other words, it should mobilize the resources and energies of the system and determine the priorities among them. “Integration” (I) refers to the coordination and harmony of parts of the system so that the system functions as a whole. To keep the system running, it must coordinate, correct, and regulate the relationships between the various actors or units in the system. “Latent pattern maintenance” (L) shows how to ensure the continuity of the action within the system according to a certain order or norm. The system should protect its values from deterioration and ensure the transfer of social values. Thus, it ensures the compliance of the members of the system. Especially family, religion, media and education have basic functions. Thanks to these, individuals gain a moral commitment to values shared socially [30
The General Action Level is as follows in Table 2
Ultimately we get this series: The social the system, the fiduciary the cognitive.
Let us rebuild this series neutrosociology: (1, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0).
If we go back to the beginning, “Behavioral organic, Personality system, Cultural system and Social system” must work continuously to ensure social balance. This will be through “socialization” and “social control”. If socialization “works”, all members of the society will adhere to shared values, make appropriate choices between pattern variables, and do what is expected of them in harmony, integration and other issues. For example, people will marry and socialize their children (L), and the father in the family will gain bread as it should be (A) [35