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Open AccessArticle

Entropy Generation and Consequences of MHD in Darcy–Forchheimer Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Non-Linearly Stretching Surface

School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
School of Mathematics and Statistics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 72915, Vietnam
Department of Mathematics, Cankaya University, Ankara 06530, Turkey
Institute of Space Sciences, 077125 Magurele, Romania
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40250, Taiwan
Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Aldawaser 11991, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure, ÉTS, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 652;
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Present communication aims to inspect the entropy optimization, heat and mass transport in Darcy-Forchheimer nanofluid flow surrounded by a non-linearly stretching surface. Navier-Stokes model based governing equations for non-Newtonian nanofluids having symmetric components in various terms are considered. Non-linear stretching is assumed to be the driving force whereas influence of thermal radiation, Brownian diffusion, dissipation and thermophoresis is considered. Importantly, entropy optimization is performed using second law of thermodynamics. Governing problems are converted into nonlinear ordinary problems (ODEs) using suitably adjusted transformations. RK-45 based built-in shooting mechanism is used to solve the problems. Final outcomes are plotted graphically. In addition to velocity, temperature, concentration and Bejan number, the stream lines, contour graphs and density graphs have been prepared. For their industrial and engineering importance, results for wall-drag force, heat flux (Nusselt) rate and mass flux (Sherwood) rate are also given in tabular data form. Outputs indicate that velocity reduces for Forchheimer number as well as for the porosity factor. However, a rise is noted in temperature distribution for elevated values of thermal radiation. Entropy optimization shows enhancement for larger values of temperature difference ratio. Skin-friction enhances for all relevant parameters involved in momentum equation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Darcy–Forchheimer model; non-linear stretching sheet; entropy optimization; nanofluid Darcy–Forchheimer model; non-linear stretching sheet; entropy optimization; nanofluid
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Rasool, G.; Shafiq, A.; Khan, I.; Baleanu, D.; Sooppy Nisar, K.; Shahzadi, G. Entropy Generation and Consequences of MHD in Darcy–Forchheimer Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Non-Linearly Stretching Surface. Symmetry 2020, 12, 652.

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