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Article

Pauli Crystals–Interplay of Symmetries

Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111886
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetries and the Pauli Exclusion Principle)
Recently observed Pauli crystals are structures formed by trapped ultracold atoms with the Fermi statistics. Interactions between these atoms are switched off, so their relative positions are determined by joined action of the trapping potential and the Pauli exclusion principle. Numerical modeling is used in this paper to find the Pauli crystals in a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic trap, three-dimensional harmonic trap, and a two-dimensional square well trap. The Pauli crystals do not have the symmetry of the trap—the symmetry is broken by the measurement of positions and, in many cases, by the quantum state of atoms in the trap. Furthermore, the Pauli crystals are compared with the Coulomb crystals formed by electrically charged trapped particles. The structure of the Pauli crystals differs from that of the Coulomb crystals, this provides evidence that the exclusion principle cannot be replaced by a two-body repulsive interaction but rather has to be considered to be a specifically quantum mechanism leading to many-particle correlations. View Full-Text
Keywords: pauli exclusion; ultracold fermions; quantum correlations pauli exclusion; ultracold fermions; quantum correlations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gajda, M.; Mostowski, J.; Pylak, M.; Sowiński, T.; Załuska-Kotur, M. Pauli Crystals–Interplay of Symmetries. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1886. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111886

AMA Style

Gajda M, Mostowski J, Pylak M, Sowiński T, Załuska-Kotur M. Pauli Crystals–Interplay of Symmetries. Symmetry. 2020; 12(11):1886. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111886

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gajda, Mariusz, Jan Mostowski, Maciej Pylak, Tomasz Sowiński, and Magdalena Załuska-Kotur. 2020. "Pauli Crystals–Interplay of Symmetries" Symmetry 12, no. 11: 1886. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111886

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