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Open AccessArticle

High-Precision Authentication Scheme Based on Matrix Encoding for AMBTC-Compressed Images

1
The School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350300, China
2
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
3
Engineering Research Center for ICH Digitalization and Multi-Source Information Fusion, Fujian University, Fuzhou 350300, China
4
Department of Computer Science and Information Management, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11080996
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences II)
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PDF [4209 KB, uploaded 17 August 2019]
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Abstract

In this paper, a high-precision image authentication scheme for absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC)-compressed images is presented. For each block, two sub-bitmaps are conducted using the symmetrical separation, and the six-bit authentication code is symmetrically assigned to two sub-codes, which is virtually embedded into sub-bitmaps using the matrix encoding later. To overcome distortion caused by modifications to the bitmap, the corresponding to-be-flipped bit-location information is recorded instead of flipping these bits of the bitmap directly. Then, the bit-location information is inserted into quantization levels based on adjusted quantization level matching. In contrast to previous studies, the proposed scheme offers a significantly improved tampering detection ability, especially in the first hierarchical tampering detection without remediation measures, with an average tampering detection rate of up to 98.55%. Experimental results show that our approach provides a more stable and reliable tampering detection performance and sustains an acceptable visual quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: image authentication; AMBTC; matrix encoding; adjusted quantization levels matching image authentication; AMBTC; matrix encoding; adjusted quantization levels matching
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Su, G.-D.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-C. High-Precision Authentication Scheme Based on Matrix Encoding for AMBTC-Compressed Images. Symmetry 2019, 11, 996.

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