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Open AccessArticle

High-Precision Authentication Scheme Based on Matrix Encoding for AMBTC-Compressed Images

The School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350300, China
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
Engineering Research Center for ICH Digitalization and Multi-Source Information Fusion, Fujian University, Fuzhou 350300, China
Department of Computer Science and Information Management, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 996;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences II)
PDF [4209 KB, uploaded 17 August 2019]


In this paper, a high-precision image authentication scheme for absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC)-compressed images is presented. For each block, two sub-bitmaps are conducted using the symmetrical separation, and the six-bit authentication code is symmetrically assigned to two sub-codes, which is virtually embedded into sub-bitmaps using the matrix encoding later. To overcome distortion caused by modifications to the bitmap, the corresponding to-be-flipped bit-location information is recorded instead of flipping these bits of the bitmap directly. Then, the bit-location information is inserted into quantization levels based on adjusted quantization level matching. In contrast to previous studies, the proposed scheme offers a significantly improved tampering detection ability, especially in the first hierarchical tampering detection without remediation measures, with an average tampering detection rate of up to 98.55%. Experimental results show that our approach provides a more stable and reliable tampering detection performance and sustains an acceptable visual quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: image authentication; AMBTC; matrix encoding; adjusted quantization levels matching image authentication; AMBTC; matrix encoding; adjusted quantization levels matching

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Su, G.-D.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-C. High-Precision Authentication Scheme Based on Matrix Encoding for AMBTC-Compressed Images. Symmetry 2019, 11, 996.

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