Next Article in Journal
Overview of High Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Symmetries of String Theory
Previous Article in Journal
Does Functional Lateralization in Birds Have any Implications for Their Welfare?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Testing New Methods for Boarding a Partially Occupied Airplane Using Apron Buses

1
Department of Economic Informatics and Cybernetics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, 010552 Bucharest, Romania
2
David D. Reh School of Business, Clarkson University, 333 B.H. Snell Hall, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
4
Department of Economics and Economic Policies, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, 010374 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081044
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
PDF [2102 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The use of apron buses has become a common practice at many European airports. Previous studies related to airplane boarding rarely apply when apron buses are used, leaving airlines with no well-researched option except to use the random boarding method. In this paper, we test the time to complete boarding a two-door airplane using various boarding methods with two apron buses. These methods were inspired by the classical outside-in, back-to-front, and reverse-pyramid methods considering the limited number of boarding groups corresponding to the limited number of apron buses used for transporting passengers from the terminal to the aircraft. Unlike earlier publications, we test these methods under partial aircraft occupancy. Furthermore, we test the boarding methods under conditions involving: different passenger occupancy rates, different luggage situations, and with two types of seating assignments—random and based upon passenger seating preferences—by considering the advantages brought by the symmetric layout of the aircraft. Experimental results indicate that the best performing method can reduce the boarding time by up to 38.6% compared to the time resulting from the random boarding method. When the airplane is partially occupied, the best performing methods are reverse pyramid–A, hybrid–A, and hybrid–B, all with similar performances.
Keywords: airplane boarding; apron buses; agent-based modeling; two-door boarding; symmetrical boarding; NetLogo; airplane boarding; apron buses; agent-based modeling; two-door boarding; symmetrical boarding; NetLogo;
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cotfas, L.-A.; Delcea, C.; Milne, R.J.; Salari, M.; Crăciun, L.; Molănescu, A.G. Testing New Methods for Boarding a Partially Occupied Airplane Using Apron Buses. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1044.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top