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A Critical Analysis of Behavioural Crowd Dynamics—From a Modelling Strategy to Kinetic Theory Methods

1,*,†, 2,† and 1,†
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Symmetry 2019, 11(7), 851;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
PDF [284 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]


This paper proposes a critical analysis of the literature addressed to modelling and simulations of human crowds with the aim of selecting the most appropriate scale out of the microscopic (individual based), mesoscopic (kinetic), and macroscopic (hydrodynamical) approaches. The selection is made focusing on possible applications of the model. In particular, model validation and safety problems, where validation consists of studying the ability of models to depict empirical data and observed emerging behaviors. The contents of the paper look forward to computational applications related to the flow crowds on the Jamarat bridge. View Full-Text
Keywords: crowd dynamics; scaling; kinetic models; safety crowd dynamics; scaling; kinetic models; safety
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Elaiw, A.; Al-Turki, Y.; Alghamdi, M. A Critical Analysis of Behavioural Crowd Dynamics—From a Modelling Strategy to Kinetic Theory Methods. Symmetry 2019, 11, 851.

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