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Symmetry 2019, 11(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020146

Application of the Extended HOMED (Harmonic Oscillator Model of Aromaticity) Index to Simple and Tautomeric Five-Membered Heteroaromatic Cycles with C, N, O, P, and S Atoms

Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), ul. Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract

The geometry-based HOMA (Harmonic Oscillator Model of Aromaticity) descriptor, based on the reference compounds of different delocalizations of n- and π-electrons, can be applied to molecules possessing analogous bonds, e.g., only CC, only CN, only CO, etc. For compounds with different heteroatoms and a different number of CC, CX, XX, and XY bonds, its application leads to some discrepancies. For this reason, the structural descriptor was modified and the HOMED (Harmonic Oscillator Model of Electron Delocalization) index defined. In 2010, the HOMED index was parameterized for compounds with C, N and O atoms. For parametrization, the reference molecules of similar delocalizations of n- and π-electrons were employed. In this paper, the HOMED index was extended to compounds containing the CP, CS, NN, NP, PP, NO, NS, PO, and PS bonds. For geometrical optimization of all reference molecules and of all investigated heterocompounds, the same quantum–chemical method {B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)} was used to eliminate errors of the HOMED estimation. For some tautomeric systems, the Gn methods were also employed to confirm tautomeric preferences. The extended HOMED index was applied to five-membered heterocycles, simple furan and thiophene, and their N and P derivatives as well as for tautomeric pyrrole and phosphole and their N and P derivatives. The effects of additional heteroatom(s) in the ring on the HOMED values for furan are parallel to those for thiophene. For pyrroles, aromaticity dictates the tautomeric preferences. An additional N atom in the ring only slightly affects the HOMED values for the favored and well delocalized NH tautomers. Significant changes take place for their rare CH forms. When intramolecular proton-transfer is considered for phosphole and its P derivatives, the PH tautomers seem to be favored only for 1,2,3-triphosphole/1,2,5-triphosphole and for 1,2,3,5-tetraphosphole. For other phospholes, the CH forms have smaller Gibbs energies than the PH isomers. For phosphazoles, the labile proton in the favored form is linked to the N atom. The PH forms have smaller HOMED indices than the NH tautomers but higher than the CH ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: electron delocalization; HOMED index; five-membered heterocycles; effects of N and P atoms in furan and thiophene; tautomeric azoles; phospholes and phosphazoles; NH, PH and CH tautomers electron delocalization; HOMED index; five-membered heterocycles; effects of N and P atoms in furan and thiophene; tautomeric azoles; phospholes and phosphazoles; NH, PH and CH tautomers
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Raczyńska, E.D. Application of the Extended HOMED (Harmonic Oscillator Model of Aromaticity) Index to Simple and Tautomeric Five-Membered Heteroaromatic Cycles with C, N, O, P, and S Atoms. Symmetry 2019, 11, 146.

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