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Open AccessArticle

Symmetry Breaking in Interacting Ring-Shaped Superflows of Bose–Einstein Condensates

1
Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
2
Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, and Center for Light-Matter Interaction, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101312
Received: 20 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Breaking in Bose-Einstein Condensates)
We demonstrate that the evolution of superflows in interacting persistent currents of ultracold gases is strongly affected by symmetry breaking of the quantum vortex dynamics. We study counter-propagating superflows in a system of two parallel rings in regimes of weak (a Josephson junction with tunneling through the barrier) and strong (rings merging across a reduced barrier) interactions. For the weakly interacting toroidal Bose–Einstein condensates, formation of rotational fluxons (Josephson vortices) is associated with spontaneous breaking of the rotational symmetry of the tunneling superflows. The influence of a controllable symmetry breaking on the final state of the merging counter-propagating superflows is investigated in the framework of a weakly dissipative mean-field model. It is demonstrated that the population imbalance between the merging flows and the breaking of the underlying rotational symmetry can drive the double-ring system to final states with different angular momenta. View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic Bose–Einstein condensate; symmetry breaking; Josephson vortex; persistent current atomic Bose–Einstein condensate; symmetry breaking; Josephson vortex; persistent current
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Oliinyk, A.; Yatsuta, I.; Malomed, B.; Yakimenko, A. Symmetry Breaking in Interacting Ring-Shaped Superflows of Bose–Einstein Condensates. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1312.

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