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Rainfall Runoff Analysis and Sustainable Soil Bed Optimization Engineering Process: Application of an Advanced Decision-Making Technique

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Department of Civil Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Technology, Multan 60000, Pakistan
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Pakistan Engineering Council, Ataturk Avenue (East), G-5/2, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Chemistry, Bayreuth Centre for Ecology and Environmental Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101224
Received: 17 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Engineering Sciences II)
Sustainable engineering practices always provide an opportunity for engineers to produce long-term solutions. In the fields of construction and irrigation, soil bed formation symmetry is very important, especially in the case of its behavior with reference to water runoff, whether natural or artificial. In this study, different soil bed formations were tested with the help of advanced hydrology apparatus under severe rainfall conditions. A major focus was to observe the water retention and volume discharge with reference to soil combinations and slope level change. Furthermore, an advanced decision-making technique incorporating artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to predict and explore the interrelationship behavior of different parameters. It was observed that ST-1 (100% clay) performed well as it tried to retain a large quantity of water (7.28 L/min), making it suitable for irrigation, while ST-2 (100% sand) performed better for structures, as sand tries to quickly drain water, thus retaining less water (0.16 L/min). Change of slope was also another factor; at a 3% slope level along with 100% clay, water resistance was higher as compared to sand. Soil type-3 (ST-3) helped in the retention of water even at a 3% soil bed slope. This study will help engineers and designers in the optimization of soil bed formation for construction and irrigation purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sustainability; Rainfall; Runoff; Soil; Advance Hydrology Apparatus; Symmetry Sustainability; Rainfall; Runoff; Soil; Advance Hydrology Apparatus; Symmetry
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Hanif, M.H.; Adnan, M.; Shah, S.A.R.; Khan, N.M.; Nadeem, M.; Javed, J.; Akbar, M.W.; Farooq, A.; Waseem, M. Rainfall Runoff Analysis and Sustainable Soil Bed Optimization Engineering Process: Application of an Advanced Decision-Making Technique. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1224.

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