Next Article in Journal
Some Partitioned Maclaurin Symmetric Mean Based on q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy Information for Dealing with Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making
Previous Article in Journal
Time-Dependent Behavior of a Circular Symmetrical Tunnel Supported with Rockbolts
Article

Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra

by 1 and 2,*
1
Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Ghent University, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
2
California Nanosystems Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2018, 10(9), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090382
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
The icosahedron and the dodecahedron have the same graph structures as their algebraic conjugates, the great dodecahedron and the great stellated dodecahedron. All four polyhedra are equilateral and have planar faces—thus “EP”—and display icosahedral symmetry. However, the latter two (star polyhedra) are non-convex and “pathological” because of intersecting faces. Approaching the problem analytically, we sought alternate EP-embeddings for Platonic and Archimedean solids. We prove that the number of equations—E edge length equations (enforcing equilaterality) and 2 E 3 F face (torsion) equations (enforcing planarity)—and of variables ( 3 V 6 ) are equal. Therefore, solutions of the equations up to equivalence generally leave no degrees of freedom. As a result, in general there is a finite (but very large) number of solutions. Unfortunately, even with state-of-the-art computer algebra, the resulting systems of equations are generally too complicated to completely solve within reasonable time. We therefore added an additional constraint, symmetry, specifically requiring solutions to display (at least) tetrahedral symmetry. We found 77 non-classical embeddings, seven without intersecting faces—two, four and one, respectively, for the (graphs of the) dodecahedron, the icosidodecahedron and the rhombicosidodecahedron. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyhedra; equilateral; tetrahedral symmetry; Platonic solid; Archimedean solid polyhedra; equilateral; tetrahedral symmetry; Platonic solid; Archimedean solid
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Coolsaet, K.; Schein, S. Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra. Symmetry 2018, 10, 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090382

AMA Style

Coolsaet K, Schein S. Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra. Symmetry. 2018; 10(9):382. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090382

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coolsaet, Kris, and Stan Schein. 2018. "Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra" Symmetry 10, no. 9: 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090382

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop