Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm inspired by humpback whale hunting behavior. WOA has many similarities with other swarm intelligence algorithms (PSO, GWO, etc.). WOA’s unique search mechanism enables it to have a strong global search capability while taking into account the strong global search capabilities. In this work, considering the the deficiency of WOA in local search mechanism, combined with the optimization methods of other group intelligent algorithms, perceptual perturbation mechanism is introduced, which makes the agent perform more detailed searches near the local extreme point. At the same time, since the WOA uses a logarithmic spiral curve, the agent cannot fully search all the spaces within its search range, even though the introduction of the perturbation mechanism may still lead to the algorithm falling into a local optimum. Therefore, the equal pitch Archimedes spiral curve is chosen to replace the classic logarithmic spiral curve. In order to fully verify the effect of the search path on the performance of the algorithm, several other spiral curves have been chosen for experimental comparison. By utilizing the 23 benchmark test functions, the simulation results show that WOA (PDWOA) with perceptual perturbation significantly outperforms the standard WOA. Then, based on the PDWOA, the effect of the search path on the performance of the algorithm has been verified. The simulation results show that the equal pitch of the Archimedean spiral curve is best.
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