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Open AccessArticle

EBNA1 IgM-Based Discrimination Between Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients and Healthy Controls

1
Department of Autoimmunology, Statens Serum Institut; Oerestads boulevard 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Immunology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Copenhagen Lupus and Vasculitis Clinic, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibodies 2019, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib8020035
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Based Diagnostics)
Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) has been associated with development of rheumatic connective tissue diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically susceptible individuals. Diagnosis of RA and SLE relies on clinical criteria in combination with the presence of characteristic autoantibodies. In addition, antibodies to several EBV antigens have been shown to be elevated in patients with these diseases compared to healthy controls (HC). Here, we elaborated improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antibodies (IgM, IgA, IgG) to the EBV proteins Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)1 and early antigen diffuse (EAD) in order to determine their potential diagnostic role. We showed that especially EBNA1 IgM distinguished RA from SLE and HCs and also distinguished SLE from HCs. EBNA1 IgA was almost as effective in differentiating RA from SLE and HC, while EAD IgG and IgA were able to discern SLE patients from RA patients and HCs. Collectively, these findings illustrate the potential diagnostic use of antibodies to EBV proteins to diagnose RA and to differentiate SLE from RA. View Full-Text
Keywords: Epstein–Barr Virus; EBNA1; EAD; IgM; IgA; IgG; sensitivity; specificity; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus Epstein–Barr Virus; EBNA1; EAD; IgM; IgA; IgG; sensitivity; specificity; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus
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Trier, N.H.; Draborg, A.H.; Sternbæk, L.; Troelsen, L.; Larsen, J.L.; Jacobsen, S.; Houen, G. EBNA1 IgM-Based Discrimination Between Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients and Healthy Controls. Antibodies 2019, 8, 35.

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