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Antibodies, Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): T cell therapies, including CAR T cells, have proven more effective in hematologic malignancies than solid tumors, where the local metabolic environment is distinctly immunosuppressive. We discuss how intrinsic- (T cells) as well as extrinsic (tumor cells and micro-environmental)-derived metabolic factors, including lactate, suppress the ability of antigen-specific T cells to eradicate tumors. Finally, we introduce recent discoveries that target the TME in order to potentiate T cell-based therapies against cancer. View this paper
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Article
A Single Animal Species-Based Prediction of Human Clearance and First-in-Human Dose of Monoclonal Antibodies: Beyond Monkey
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030035 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
These days, there is a lot of emphasis on the prediction of human clearance (CL) from a single species for monoclonal antibodies (mabs). Many studies indicate that monkey is the most suitable species for the prediction of human clearance for mabs. However, it [...] Read more.
These days, there is a lot of emphasis on the prediction of human clearance (CL) from a single species for monoclonal antibodies (mabs). Many studies indicate that monkey is the most suitable species for the prediction of human clearance for mabs. However, it is not well established if rodents (mouse or rat) can also be used to predict human CL for mabs. The objectives of this study were to predict and compare human CL as well as first-in-human dose of mabs from mouse or rat, ormonkey. Four methods were used for the prediction of human CL of mabs. These methods were: use of four allometric exponents (0.75, 0.80, 0.85, and 0.90), a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetics method (mPBPK), lymph flow rate, and liver blood flow rate. Based on the predicted CL, first-in-human dose of mabs was projected using either exponent 1.0 (linear scaling) or exponent 0.85, and human-equivalent dose (HED) from each of these species. The results of the study indicated that rat or mouse could provide a reasonably accurate prediction of human CL as well as first-in-human dose of mabs. When exponent 0.85 was used for CL prediction, there were 78%, 95%, and 92% observations within a 2-fold prediction error for mouse, rat, and monkey, respectively. Predicted human dose fell within the observed human dose range (administered to humans) for 10 out of 13 mabs for mouse, 11 out of 12 mabs for rat, and 12 out of 15 mabs for monkey. Overall, the clearance and first-in-human dose of mabs were predicted reasonably well by all three species (a single species). On average, monkey may be the best species for the prediction of human clearance and human dose but mouse or rat especially; rat can be a very useful species for conducting the aforementioned studies. Full article
Article
Immunochemistry-Based Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: A Strategy for Large-Scale Production of MPT64-Antibodies for Use in the MPT64 Antigen Detection Test
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030034 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. The immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based MPT64 antigen detection test has shown promising results for diagnosing extrapulmonary TB in previous studies. However, the anti-MPT64 antibody currently used in the test is in limited supply, and reproduction of a functional [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. The immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based MPT64 antigen detection test has shown promising results for diagnosing extrapulmonary TB in previous studies. However, the anti-MPT64 antibody currently used in the test is in limited supply, and reproduction of a functional antibody is a prerequisite for further large-scale use. Various antigen-adjuvant combinations and immunisation protocols were tested in mice and rabbits to generate monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were screened in IHC, and the final new antibody was validated on clinical human specimens. We were not able to generate monoclonal antibodies that were functional in IHC, but we obtained multiple functional polyclonal antibodies through careful selection of antigen-adjuvant and comprehensive screening in IHC of both pre-immune sera and antisera. To overcome the limitation of batch-to-batch variability with polyclonal antibodies, the best performing individual polyclonal antibodies were pooled to one final large-volume new anti-MPT64 antibody. The sensitivity of the new antibody was in the same range as the reference antibody, while the specificity was somewhat reduced. Our results suggest that it possible to reproduce a large-volume functional polyclonal antibody with stable performance, thereby securing stable supplies and reproducibility of the MPT64 test, albeit further validation remains to be done. Full article
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Article
Variable Distribution of DOCK-D Proteins between Cytosol and Nucleoplasm in Cell Lines, Effect of Interleukin-4 on DOCK10 in B-Cell Lymphoid Neoplasms, and Validation of a New DOCK10 Antiserum for Immunofluorescence Studies
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030033 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Dedicator-of-cytokinesis (DOCK), a family of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), comprises four subfamilies, named from A to D. DOCK-D comprises DOCK9, DOCK10, and DOCK11. The GEF activity involves translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane (PM), as assessed by the transfection of tagged [...] Read more.
Dedicator-of-cytokinesis (DOCK), a family of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), comprises four subfamilies, named from A to D. DOCK-D comprises DOCK9, DOCK10, and DOCK11. The GEF activity involves translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane (PM), as assessed by the transfection of tagged proteins. However, the cellular localization of endogenous DOCK proteins is poorly understood. In this paper, to gain a better understanding of the role of the DOCK-D proteins, we studied their distribution between cytosol and nucleoplasm in 11 cell lines. DOCK-D proteins were distributed with variable cytosolic or nuclear predominance, although the latter was common for DOCK9 and DOCK11. These results suggest that the DOCK-D proteins may perform new nuclear functions, which remain to be discovered. Furthermore, we found that DOCK10 levels are increased by interleukin-4 (IL-4) in B-cell lymphoid neoplasms other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) such as mantle cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We also found evidence for an induction of the cytosolic levels of DOCK10 by IL-4 in CLL. Finally, we obtained a valid DOCK10 antiserum for immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy that, as an antibody against the hemagglutinin (HA) tag, marked PM ruffles and filopodia in HeLa cells with inducible expression of HA-DOCK10. Full article
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Review
Rational Design of Constrained Peptides as Protein Interface Inhibitors
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030032 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The lack of progress in developing targeted therapeutics directed at protein–protein complexes has been due to the absence of well-defined ligand-binding pockets and the extensive intermolecular contacts at the protein–protein interface. Our laboratory has developed approaches to dissect protein–protein complexes focusing on the [...] Read more.
The lack of progress in developing targeted therapeutics directed at protein–protein complexes has been due to the absence of well-defined ligand-binding pockets and the extensive intermolecular contacts at the protein–protein interface. Our laboratory has developed approaches to dissect protein–protein complexes focusing on the superfamilies of erbB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors by the combined use of structural biology and computational biology to facilitate small molecule development. We present a perspective on the development and application of peptide inhibitors as well as immunoadhesins to cell surface receptors performed in our laboratory. Full article
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Article
Epitope Mapping of Monoclonal Antibodies to Calreticulin Reveals That Charged Amino Acids Are Essential for Antibody Binding
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030031 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Calreticulin is a chaperone protein, which is associated with myeloproliferative diseases. In this study, we used resin-bound peptides to characterize two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to calreticulin, mAb FMC 75 and mAb 16, which both have significantly contributed to understanding the biological function [...] Read more.
Calreticulin is a chaperone protein, which is associated with myeloproliferative diseases. In this study, we used resin-bound peptides to characterize two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to calreticulin, mAb FMC 75 and mAb 16, which both have significantly contributed to understanding the biological function of calreticulin. The antigenicity of the resin-bound peptides was determined by modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific binding was determined to an 8-mer epitope located in the N-terminal (amino acids 34–41) and to a 12-mer peptide located in the C-terminal (amino acids 362–373). Using truncated peptides, the epitopes were identified as TSRWIESK and DEEQRLKEEED for mAb FMC 75 and mAb 16, respectively, where, especially the charged amino acids, were found to have a central role for a stable binding. Further studies indicated that the epitope of mAb FMC 75 is assessable in the oligomeric structure of calreticulin, making this epitope a potential therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Production and Characterization of Peptide Antibodies)
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Review
Importance and Considerations of Antibody Engineering in Antibody-Drug Conjugates Development from a Clinical Pharmacologist’s Perspective
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030030 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) appear to be in a developmental boom, with five FDA approvals in the last two years and a projected market value of over $4 billion by 2024. Major advancements in the engineering of these novel cytotoxic drug carriers have provided [...] Read more.
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) appear to be in a developmental boom, with five FDA approvals in the last two years and a projected market value of over $4 billion by 2024. Major advancements in the engineering of these novel cytotoxic drug carriers have provided a few early success stories. Although the use of these immunoconjugate agents are still in their infancy, valuable lessons in the engineering of these agents have been learned from both preclinical and clinical failures. It is essential to appreciate how the various mechanisms used to engineer changes in ADCs can alter the complex pharmacology of these agents and allow the ADCs to navigate the modern-day therapeutic challenges within oncology. This review provides a global overview of ADC characteristics which can be engineered to alter the interaction with the immune system, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and therapeutic index of ADCs. In addition, this review will highlight some of the engineering approaches being explored in the creation of the next generation of ADCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Editorial
Special Issue: The Role of Complement in Cancer Immunotherapy
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030029 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The complement system plays an important role in critical aspects of immune defense and in the maintenance of homeostasis in the bloodstream, as well as in essentially all tissues and organs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Complement in Cancer Immunotherapy)
Case Report
Clinical Case: Patient with Mixed Graft Rejection Four Days after Kidney Transplantation Developed Specific Antibodies against Donor Bw4 Specificities
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030028 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Kidney transplantation, like other transplants, has the risk of producing graft rejection due to genetic differences between donor and recipient. The three known types of renal rejection are listed in the Banff classification: T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), and mixed rejection. The [...] Read more.
Kidney transplantation, like other transplants, has the risk of producing graft rejection due to genetic differences between donor and recipient. The three known types of renal rejection are listed in the Banff classification: T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), and mixed rejection. The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are highly polymorphic and may be the targets of donor-specific antibodies, resulting in ABMR. Therefore, prior to transplantation, it is necessary to analyze the HLA genotype of the donor and recipient, as well as the presence of DSA, in order to avoid hyperacute rejection. However, due to the shortage of kidneys, it is very difficult to find a donor and a recipient with completely matched HLA genotypes. This can trigger a future rejection of the kidney, as is reported in this work. We describe a patient who received a kidney transplant after a negative DSA test, who developed graft rejection with antibodies against the donor’s HLA-Bw4 public epitope and lymphocytic infiltrate four days after transplantation, whose differential diagnosis was mixed rejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management of Antibodies in Transplantation)
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Article
Specificity of Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies to Citrullinated α-Enolase Peptides as a Function of Epitope Structure and Composition
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030027 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting approximately 1–2% of the world population. In addition to the first discovered serologic markers for RA, the rheumatoid factors (RFs), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are even more specific for the disease compared to RFs and [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting approximately 1–2% of the world population. In addition to the first discovered serologic markers for RA, the rheumatoid factors (RFs), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are even more specific for the disease compared to RFs and are found in 70–80% of RA patient sera. RA etiopathogenesis still needs to be elucidated, as different factors are proposed to be involved, such as Epstein–Barr virus infection. Hence, understanding the interaction between ACPAs and their citrullinated peptide targets is relevant for a better knowledge of RA pathophysiology and for diagnostic purposes. In this study, a cohort of RA sera, healthy control sera and multiple sclerosis sera were screened for reactivity to a variety of citrullinated peptides originating from α-enolase, pro-filaggrin, proteoglycan and Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen-2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ACPA reactivity to citrullinated α-enolase peptides was found to depend on peptide length and peptide conformation, favouring cyclic (disulfide bond) conformations for long peptides and linear peptides for truncated ones. Additional investigations about the optimal peptide conformation for ACPA detection, employing pro-filaggrin and EBNA-2 peptides, confirmed these findings, indicating a positive effect of cyclization of longer peptides of approximately 20 amino acids. Moreover, screening of the citrullinated peptides confirmed that ACPAs can be divided into two groups based on their reactivity. Approximately 90% of RA sera recognize several peptide targets, being defined as cross-reactive or overlapping reactivities, and whose reactivity to the citrullinated peptide is considered primarily to be backbone-dependent. In contrast, approximately 10% recognize a single target and are defined as nonoverlapping, primarily depending on the specific amino acid side-chains in the epitope for a stable interaction. Collectively, this study contributed to characterize epitope composition and structure for optimal ACPA reactivity and to obtain further knowledge about the cross-reactive nature of ACPAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Production and Characterization of Peptide Antibodies)
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Article
Identification of Human SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies from Convalescent Patients Using EBV Immortalization
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030026 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 939
Abstract
We report the isolation of two human IgG1k monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These mAbs were isolated from two donors who had recovered from COVID-19 infection during the first pandemic peak in the Lombardy region of Italy, the first [...] Read more.
We report the isolation of two human IgG1k monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These mAbs were isolated from two donors who had recovered from COVID-19 infection during the first pandemic peak in the Lombardy region of Italy, the first European and initially most affected region in March 2020. We used the method of EBV immortalization of purified memory B cells and supernatant screening with a spike S1/2 assay for mAb isolation. This method allowed rapid isolation of clones, with one donor showing about 7% of clones positive against spike protein, whereas the other donor did not produce positive clones out of 91 tested. RNA was extracted from positive clones 39–47 days post-EBV infection, allowing VH and VL sequencing. The same clones were sequenced again after a further 100 days in culture, showing that no mutation had taken place during in vitro expansion. The B cell clones could be expanded in culture for more than 4 months after EBV immortalization and secreted the antibodies stably during that time, allowing to purify mg quantities of each mAb for functional assays without generating recombinant proteins. Unfortunately, neither mAb had significant neutralizing activity in a virus infection assay with several different SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The antibody sequences are made freely available. Full article
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Review
Beyond the Lactate Paradox: How Lactate and Acidity Impact T Cell Therapies against Cancer
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030025 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1542
Abstract
T cell therapies, including CAR T cells, have proven more effective in hematologic malignancies than solid tumors, where the local metabolic environment is distinctly immunosuppressive. In particular, the acidic and hypoxic features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) present a unique challenge for T [...] Read more.
T cell therapies, including CAR T cells, have proven more effective in hematologic malignancies than solid tumors, where the local metabolic environment is distinctly immunosuppressive. In particular, the acidic and hypoxic features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) present a unique challenge for T cells. Local metabolism is an important consideration for activated T cells as they undergo bursts of migration, proliferation and differentiation in hostile soil. Tumor cells and activated T cells both produce lactic acid at high rates. The role of lactic acid in T cell biology is complex, as lactate is an often-neglected carbon source that can fuel TCA anaplerosis. Circulating lactate is also an important means to regulate redox balance. In hypoxic tumors, lactate is immune-suppressive. Here, we discuss how intrinsic- (T cells) as well as extrinsic (tumor cells and micro-environmental)-derived metabolic factors, including lactate, suppress the ability of antigen-specific T cells to eradicate tumors. Finally, we introduce recent discoveries that target the TME in order to potentiate T cell-based therapies against cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Metabolism)
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Article
Higher PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Detection Signal in Frozen Compared to Matched Paraffin-Embedded Formalin-Fixed Tissues
Antibodies 2021, 10(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib10030024 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Purpose: Response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy correlates with PD-L1 expression in breast cancer. However, the prevalence of PD-L1 positive breast cancer is variable, which could be due to differences in the population/cohort of patients tested or the preservation/detection technology used. To investigate this variability, [...] Read more.
Purpose: Response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy correlates with PD-L1 expression in breast cancer. However, the prevalence of PD-L1 positive breast cancer is variable, which could be due to differences in the population/cohort of patients tested or the preservation/detection technology used. To investigate this variability, we examined the effect of two tissue preservation methods on PD-L1 immunohistochemical detection in breast cancer. Methods: We compared PD-L1 expression in patient-matched frozen (FR) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer patients. PD-L1 expression was assessed using tumor proportion score (TPS, simply PD-L1 score), and case positivity was determined with PD-L1 score ≥5. Results: In FFPE tissues, PD-L1 was positive in 7–10% of tested patients, depending on the antibody used. In patient-matched FR tissues, the same antibodies showed positive PD-L1 expression in 20–30% of cases. The impact of the antibody tested on the rate of PD-L1 positivity (% of PDL1 positive cases) was minor, as evident in the near perfect concordance between PD-L1 score obtained using the different antibodies whether tested in FR or FFPE tissues. However, there was a systematic drop by an average of 13–20% in the PD-L1 score obtained in FFPE tissues compared to their patient-matched FR tissues. Conclusions: In the tested patient-matched cohort, there was consistently a higher PD-L1 score in FR than FFPE tissues, regardless of the antibody used, demonstrating a significant effect on PD-L1 detection due to the preservation method. These findings should inspire further work to improve the sensitivity of PD-L1 detection and possibly search for more sensitive antibodies in FFPE tissues. Full article
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