Steering Energy Transitions through Landscape Governance: Case of Mathare Informal Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya
Case Study: Mathare Informal Settlement
2. Material and Methods
3.1. Findings from The Two-Year CoDEC Energy Project (2017–2019)
3.1.1. Energy Scenario and Challenges to Sustainable Energy Transition
3.1.2. Land Issues
3.1.3. Livelihood Issues
3.2. Findings from The Follow-Up Expert Interviews under AfriCLP Program (2019)
3.2.1. Lack of Consensus
3.2.2. Mistrust between Residents and Government Actors
3.2.3. Cultural, Social, and Economic Barriers
3.2.4. Lack of Awareness at the Sector and Community Levels
4. Analysis of CoDEC and AfriCLP Results through a Landscape Governance Framework
4.1. Ecological Dimension
4.2. Socio-Cultural Dimension
4.3. Political Dimension
4.4. Environmental Dimension
5.1. Landscape and Energy Policy Interventions
5.2. Failure of Standardised Policy Interventions
5.3. Academics as Intermediaries of Change and Knowledge Co-Creation
Conflicts of Interest
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|Initiative||Places Where Implemented||What Worked||What Has Not Worked||Viability in Mathare|
|Universal electrification||Enkanini (Solar project)|
Mathare (Biogas project)
|Improved safety through street lighting||Failed to significantly curb the use of charcoal and paraffin||Biogas project failed|
|Pre-paid electricity system||South Africa; Kenya||Consumers are able to access clean energy within their budget||The system could be limiting for people of low income||The pre-paid system failed in Mathare because it cost residents more than what they pay for the illegal connection|
|Recycling for electricity credit||Chile, Brazil||Dumping is reduced through recycling.|
It eases the expenses of paying for electricity
|Could be considered as a long-term project to reduce the menace of illegal dumping along the roads and banks of Mathare River.|
|Slum regeneration and recognition projects||Peru, Brazil, China, Indonesia||Titling has given informal settlements land ownership that allows them to develop their landscapes and have a sense of identity and belonging.|
Regeneration projects have allowed upgrading of houses in the informal settlements to allow better provision of services and essential amenities
|Regeneration projects have led to demolition of structures during the upgrade and thus failed to secure housing for all residents as some had to move to other peri-urban areas .||Titling allows residents to have legal ownership and documentation required by the utility provider to provide access to the grid. This is a potential solution to Mathare’s energy issues.|
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Njoroge, P.; Ambole, A.; Githira, D.; Outa, G. Steering Energy Transitions through Landscape Governance: Case of Mathare Informal Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya. Land 2020, 9, 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9060206
Njoroge P, Ambole A, Githira D, Outa G. Steering Energy Transitions through Landscape Governance: Case of Mathare Informal Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya. Land. 2020; 9(6):206. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9060206Chicago/Turabian Style
Njoroge, Peris, Amollo Ambole, Daniel Githira, and George Outa. 2020. "Steering Energy Transitions through Landscape Governance: Case of Mathare Informal Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya" Land 9, no. 6: 206. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9060206