- freely available
Land 2019, 8(9), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8090139
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area: Context and Background
2.2. Research Approach and Techniques
2.2.1. Reconstructing Flood Histories and Associated Landscape Context and Changes
2.2.2. Understanding Smallholder Experiences and Responses to Extreme Flood Events
3.1. Reconstructing Flood Histories
3.2. Differentiated Smallholder Experiences of Extreme Flood Events
The drivers aren’t brave, the road as slippery as it is now. The risk is high, and there’s no guarantee [compensation for losses] from the company if there’s a work accident. There is only tolerance [for missed work], but even that is not guaranteed to everyone.
I tried to buy sago flour. Even though we Bugis people don’t usually eat sago flour, and don’t feel full when we do. But what’s to be done? There’s only that to eat at the time of the floods so that’s what I gave to my children to eat.
3.3. Responses and Alterations in Land Use Practices
3.3.1. Relocating Vegetable Production from Riverbank to Hillside Lands
3.3.2. Transferring Lands within the Floodplains to Other Claimants/Operators
3.3.3. Adapting Land Management and Resource Use Practices
If you are forced to plant three times in a year [by need], and you happen to be late in first planting, just wait. If you’re lucky you’ll be safe, but if the third crop doesn’t finish in time, the crop is flooded.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|1959||This flood, considered by respondents to be one of the most severe in living memory, caused the collapse of a major iron and wooden bridge built during Japanese occupation (1942–1945), connecting inland regions to the capital city of Kendari. People managing lands in and around Lawonua during this time recounted water covering many agricultural fields and much of the land that subsequently became the site of a resettlement scheme in 1979.|
|1978||Flood waters this year extended well beyond the agricultural lands surrounding the river and inundated significant portions of the main road connecting inland regions to Kendari. The impacts of this flood in more established settlements also motivated the resettlement scheme in Lawonua in 1979 that provided 100 families with access to land and housing in Lawonua, ostensibly in areas outside the reach of flood waters.|
|2000||Flooding in 2000 lasted roughly a month, completely closing all but one access path in and out of the village to the main road to Kendari. The impacts of this flood were particularly felt by recent in-migrants into the area, who struggled to access sufficient food, including rice, and who had recently planted perennial crops in riverbank lands.|
|2013||Flooding in 2013 lasted nearly three months (June–September), with peak flooding persisting for roughly a month and inundating portions of the road to Kendari. Roughly 15 houses in Lawonua were inundated to chest height, and landslides triggered by heavy rainfall blocked access along one of roads out of the village and affected several household hillside fields. Two deaths from the flood were recorded in the province.|
|2019||The inundation of agricultural lands and settlements was of much shorter duration in 2019 than had been the case in 2000 or 2013, but most respondents noted that the waters rose much more quickly than was the case in either of these prior flood events. Flood waters began to rise on June 9, before peaking on June 11 and beginning to recede around June 25. Overall, 33 houses were inundated to some degree in Lawonua during this flood. As with other major floods, mobility was disrupted on both local roads and provincial road networks. Several deaths were recorded from this flood .|
|Damage to house or household property||Permanent damage to homes and household items (e.g., cabinets, televisions, mattresses, firewood)|
|Damage to infrastructure||Permanent damage to bridges, dykes, roads, health facilities|
|Damage to crops||Rotting due to water damage, change in pest/pathogen regime, full loss of crop|
|Challenges accessing clean water||Infiltration of muddy or polluted flood waters into dug wells|
|Challenges accessing sufficient or sufficiently high-quality food||High prices for dry food items and vegetables and limited access to traded food products|
|Loss of mobility||Portions of road networks unpassable given mud/heavy rain/full inundation|
|Loss of work||Land submergence and loss of access to work requiring mobility|
|Premature harvest||Crop harvested before ripe to capture some yield before flood damage|
|Market opportunity||Experienced from opportunities created by flood conditions, e.g., for vegetable producers on lands safe from flood impacts|
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