- freely available
Land 2019, 8(8), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8080113
2. Study Area and Methods
3. Massingir District: Biodiversity, Water Sources, and “Marginal” Land
3.1. Water Sources: Massingir Dam, Rio Dos Elefantes (Elephant River), and Displacement
3.2. Biodiversity: Conservation, The Limpopo National Park, and the Second Wave of Displacement: Poor People out, Tourists in!
3.3. “Marginal” Land: Procana’s Biofuel Production and Land Conflicts
4. Analyzing the Land Question in Massingir District: Multiple Resource Grabbing and Land Politics
4.1. Contextualizing Land Grabbing, Conservation, and Resource Grabbing
4.2. Massingir District’s Changes in Land-Use and Property Relations: Borras and Franco’s Typology
5. Climate-Smart Land Politics in Massingir District and the Implications to Rural Livelihoods
5.1. The Convergence of Multiple Crises and Synergetic Resource Grabbing
5.2. Massingir District’s Climate-Smart Land Politics and Implications for Rural Livelihoods
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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|Land Grabs that Answer to||Project||Actors||Prior Use of Land||Main Driver/Goals||Current/New Use of Land|
|Energy crisis||Biofuel production||Foreign investors||Food production/subsistence (cattle and plots)||Environmentally friendly and efficiency||Agro-extractivist ethanol project|
|Climate change crisis||Limpopo National Park||Government, World Bank, AFD, KfW, Foreign investors||Food production/subsistence (cattle, fishery, and food crops)||Environmentally friendly and efficiency||Conservation, biodiversity, ecosystems, and tourism investments|
|Protection of biodiversity||Irrigation systems and extension of “agroecology” in the buffer zone||LNP, AFD, KFW, rural households||Food production/subsistence (cattle, fishery, and plots)||Environmentally friendly/efficiency||Protect biodiversity and ecosystems of LNP, food production/subsistence (under the guidelines of LNP and its donors), and tourism|
|Water/Energy||Financialization Massingir Dam rehabilitation||African Development Bank, Government||Food production/subsistence (cattle, fishery, and plots)||Efficiency and environmentally friendly||Irrigation to small, medium, and large-scale projects (including biofuel production and buffering zone), tourism, and energy production|
|Community||Description||Current Situation||Risks, Losses, and Implications to Livelihoods|
|Mavodze||Living inside the park and in the process of being resettled||Facing the second wave of expropriation||Unsecure and unsafe environment: people getting injured, cattle attacks, and plots destroyed by animals|
|Restrictions on fishing, grazing land, hunting, and use of forest resources|
|Did not get wage employment from the Park|
|Macavene||Previously living inside the park but already resettled in Banga||Second wave of expropriation||Loss of land (were given smaller plots to share with households from Banga community)|
|Loss of convenient water sources|
|Did not get wage employment from the Park|
|Currently have to share the land, water, and public services with Chiangane (Banga Community)||Diminished rights to access to resources—dependent on the goodwill of Banga inhabitants|
|Chinhangane (Banga)||Their area was appointed to host Macavene community in an exchange of compensation||Share land and public services with “comers”||Less land to farm and raise cattle (as they have to share with “comers” from Macavene)|
|Increased risk of not getting enough water as demand increased|
|Inter and intra-community conflicts|
|Buffer Zone communities (BZC)||Previously established in the surrounding areas of the Park||Incorporated into the project financed by AFD and KfW, including irrigation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems of the park||Loss of decision-making power regarding livelihoods: limitations on the number of cattle to raise and the quantity of production of crops|
|Enforcement of agricultural new techniques|
|Restrictions on fishing, hunting, and use of forest resources|
|Limitations regarding commercial activities, such as the production of charcoal|
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