Post-Conflict (Land) Governance
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Structuration Theory
2.2. Actor-Centered Institutionalism
3.1. Women’s Land Rights in Burundi
3.2. Land Governance in the DRC
- Community-Based Sociotherapy (CBS): Empowering individuals to engage in positive social change . Implemented by a local partner.
- Cadres de Dialogue et Mediation (CDM): Engaging in conflict mediation and in negotiation with large landholders so that farmers with no or limited access can rent land on the medium or long term and are protected through clear lease agreements. Implemented by local partner APC with long-term experience in peacebuilding and conflict resolution.
- Civil Society Engagement: Mobilization and empowerment of existing civil society structures based on the CIVICUS approach , allowing concerted action on land rights.
- Improved Governance: cooperation with/support to formal and informal authorities to improve local governance by increasing transparency and service delivery.
3.3. Rapid Appraisal of the Four Pillars
3.4. Analysis of the Choices Made in DRC
Conflicts of Interest
- Hovil, L. The Inter-Relationship between Violence, Displacement and the Transition to Stability in the Great Lakes Region; Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation: Johannesburg, South Africa, June 2008; Available online: https://www.csvr.org.za/docs/forcedmigration1108.pdf (accessed on 13 August 2018).
- Huggins, C. Land, Conflict and Identity. Roots of Violent Conflict in Eastern DRC; International Alert: London, UK, 2010; Available online: https://www.international-alert.org/sites/default/files/DRC_LandPowerIdentity_EN_2010.pdf (accessed on 24 November 2018).
- Foley, C. Land Rights in Angola: Poverty and Plenty; Working Paper; Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG); Overseas Development Institute: London, UK, November 2007; Available online: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/91177/2007-11_Land%20Rights%20in%20Angola.pdf (accessed on 13 August 2018).
- Hall, R.; Scoones, I.; Henley, G. Strengthening Land Governance: Lessons from Implementing the Voluntary Guidelines; Working and discussion papers; Overseas Development Institute: London, UK, May 2016; Available online: https://www.odi.org/publications/10409-strengthening-land-governance-lessons-implementing-voluntary-guidelines (accessed on 13 August 2018).
- Heyse, L. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid: A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making. Int. J. Volunt. Nonprofit Organ. 2013, 24, 68–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Risse, T. Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood. Introduction and Overview. In Governance Without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood; Risse, T., Ed.; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Todorovski, D. Post-Conflict Land Administration, Facilitator of Post-Conflict State Building. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 3 February 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Knight, R. Statutory Recognition of Customary Land Rights in Africa. An Investigation into Best Practices for Lawmaking and Implementation; FAO Legislative Study; Development Law Office; FAO Legal Office: Rome, Italy, 2010; Available online: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1945e/i1945e00.pdf (accessed on 15 August 2018).
- Remy, S.; Sylla, O.; Mastaki, C.P. Guide to Land Mediation. Based on the Experience in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo; UNHabitat/GLTN. Report 1-E; UNON/ Publishing Services Section: Nairobi, Kenya, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Giddens, A. The Constitution of Society—Outline of the Theory of Structuration; Polity Press: Cambridge, UK, 1984. [Google Scholar]
- Levin, J.; Milgrom, P. Introduction to Choice Theory. Available online: https://web.stanford.edu/~jdlevin/Econ%20202/Choice%20Theory.pdf (accessed on 20 December 2018).
- Scharpf, F.; Mayntz, R. Der Ansatz des akteurzentrierten Institutionalismus. In Gesellschaftliche Selbstregulierung und Politische Steuerung; Mayntz, R., Scharpf, F.W., Eds.; Campus Frankfurt am Main: New York, NY, USA, 1995. (In German) [Google Scholar]
- Scharpf, F.W. Games Real Actors Play. Actor Centred Institutionalism in Policy Research; Avalon Publishing Group: Emeyville, CA, USA, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Clement, F.; Amezaga, J. Conceptualising context in institutional reforms of land and natural resource management: the case of Vietnam. Int. J. Commons 2013, 7, 140–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Betge, D. Determinants, Consequences and Perspectives of Land Reform Politics in Newly Industrializing Countries. A Comparison of the Indian and the South African Case; Peter Lang Inc.: Bern, Switzerland, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Hilhorst, T.; Porchet, N. Burundi—Food Security and Land Governance Factsheet. 2012. Available online: http://www.landgovernance.org/system/files/Burundi%20Factsheet%20-%202012.pdf (accessed on 19 December 2018).
- Dexter, T.; Ntahombaye, P. The Role of Informal Justice Systems in Fostering the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Situations The Case of Burundi; Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue: Geneva, Switzerland, 2005; Available online: https://www.hdcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/TheroleofinformaljusticesystemsinfosteringtheRuleofLawinpost-conflictsituations-July-2005.pdf (accessed on 19 December 2018).
- Basabose, J.d.D. Community Based Sociotherapy in Rwanda: Healing a Post-Violent Conflict Society. Peaceinsight. 3 September 2014. Available online: https://www.peaceinsight.org/blog/2014/09/community-based-sociotherapy-rwanda/ (accessed on 19 December 2018).
- CIVICUS. Enabling Environment. 2018. Available online: https://www.civicus.org/index.php/what-we-do/defend/civicus-enabling-environment (accessed on 19 December 2018).
- Solhjell, R.; Rosland, R. Stabilisation in the Congo: Opportunities and Challenges. Int. J. Secur. Dev. 2017, 6, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beisheim, M.; Liese, A. Transnational Public-Private Partnerships and the Provision of Collective Goods in Developing Countries. In Governance Without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood; Risse, T., Ed.; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Autesserre, S. The Trouble with the Congo, Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding; Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Conflict Sensitivity Consortium. How to Guide to Conflict Sensitivity. 2012. Available online: http://local.conflictsensitivity.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/6602_HowToGuide_CSF_WEB_3.pdf (accessed on 20 December 2018).
- GLTN. Land and Conflict: Lessons from the Field on Conflict Sensitive Land Governance and Peacebuilding; Report 2; UNON: Nairobi, Kenya, 2018; Available online: https://gltn.net/download/land-and-conflict-lessons-from-the-field-on-conflict-sensitive-land-governance-and-peacebuilding/?wpdmdl=13040&refresh=5c4acf6ce25291548406636 (accessed on 19 January 2019).
- Beaupré, J.-F. Recognition and Enforcement of Land Rights in the Commune of Ngozi (Burundi). MSc. Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, March 2015. [Google Scholar]
The adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) in 2012 was a milestone in this regard. Since then, various actors work towards the implementation of the VGGT .
The governance definition used here deviates from the common understanding of the term that assumes a modern state to fulfill governance functions, usually on the national level. Instead, I follow an understanding of governance that accounts for the context of limited statehood found in post-conflict settings where governance is much more decentralized and a diverse set of actors fulfills governance functions .
Clement and Amezaga (2013) use a similar approach to analyze land and resource management in Vietnam . They develop an analytical framework that accounts for structural and discursive factors, which shape the outcome of institutional reforms. For an application of Actor Centered Institutionalism in the analysis of land reforms, see: Betge 2017 .
The partner organization facilitating het conflict resolution work is APC—Action Pour la Paix et la Concorde.
“Areas of limited statehood lack the capacity to implement and enforce central decisions and a monopoly on the use of force. While their “international sovereignty”, that is, recognition by the international community, is still intact, they lack “domestic sovereignty” (…)’ .
On the issue of private‒public partnerships in development contexts see: Beisheim and Liese, 2011 .
|Issue and Related Norms and Rules||Central Third Actors Involved||Actor’s Position Regarding Issue||Possible Action for ZOA||Assumed Reaction by Actor if (b)|
|Potential erosion of women’s land rights. Legal rules incoherent, generally possible for women to hold land, no inheritance law in place, local customs limit women’s land rights.||National Government||Legal status should not be changed, increased attention for women’s land rights not desirable.||(a) Accept position||Negative if (perceived as) too confrontational.|
|(b) Lobby for legal changes, advocacy to put issue on the agenda.|
|Local administration||Careful not to be positioned against legal framework or customary rules.||(a) Accept position||Negative if (perceived as) too confrontational.|
|(b) Lobby for legal changes, advocacy to put issue on the agenda on the local level.|
|Local customary authorities||Existing customary rights shall be protected, relevance of the issue not regarded as high.||(a) Accept position||Positive if participatory approach chosen and well executed.|
|(b) Engage closely with customary authorities and co-create plan of action.||Negative in case of miscommunication|
|Local partners||Women’s rights need to be protected but the relationship with state and traditional actors needs to be maintained.||(a) Accept position||Positive if participatory approach chosen and well executed..|
|(b) Push for clear commitment towards the issue.||Negative in case of miscommunication|
|Donor(s)||Project activities must not do harm; women’s rights need to be central.||(a) Coherently engage with the issue||Negative.|
|(b) Ignore donor concerns.|
|Issue and Related Norms and Rules||Central Third Actors Involved||Actor’s Position Regarding Issue||Possible Action for ZOA||Possible Reaction by Actor if (b)|
|Strategic approach towards land rights work. Internally, working according to mandate (creating peaceful communities) and capacity (localized work) are strong norms. Effectiveness and efficiency are core demands from donor. I4S alignment seen as prerequisite for this.||UN Mission||Land rights strategy needs to be aligned with I4S approach.||(a) Apply multi-level approach.||Negative|
|(b) Apply localized approach.|
|Local partners||Focused on localized interventions but well-connected on various levels.||(a) Apply multi-level approach||Neutral|
|(b) Apply localized approach|
|Donor(s)||Project activities need to be effective and efficient and aligned with I4S strategy.||(a) Apply multi-level approach||Negative|
|(b) Apply localized approach|
|Drivers of Decision-Making||Normative, External||Rule-Based, External||Normative and Rule-Based, External||Neither|
|Normative, internal||Strong commitment towards objectives → potentially lacking procedures for decision-making.||Medium commitment towards objectives, process potentially dependent on third party, commitment by third actors possibly limited.||Strong commitment towards objectives → third party likely to drive decision-making and follow-up process.||No external guidance or demand regarding engagement with specific issue.|
|Limited likelihood of achieving objectives.|
|Rule-based, internal||Limited commitment towards the issue → possibility of ‘box-ticking’ because of lacking external guidance.||Limited commitment towards the issue → high likelihood of ‘box-ticking’||Medium convergence and mutual commitment regarding objectives → third party likely to drive decision-making and follow-up process.||No external guidance or demand regarding engagement with specific issue.|
|Limited likelihood of achieving objectives.|
|Normative and rule-based, internal||Strong convergence and mutual commitment regarding objectives → NGO likely to drive decision-making and follow-up process.||Strong commitment regarding need to address issue and commitment towards objectives → Alignment of processes needed.||Strong commitment regarding need to address issue and strong commitment towards objectives → Alignment of processes needed and likely given normative convergence.||No external guidance or demand regarding engagement with specific issue.|
|Likelihood of achieving objectives depending on their complexity.|
|Neither||Limited commitment towards the issue → high likelihood of ‘box-ticking’||Limited commitment towards the issue → high likelihood of ‘box-ticking’||Limited commitment towards the issue → only medium likelihood of ‘box-ticking’ because of strong external demand.||No engagement with the issue.|
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).