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Article

Developing a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Coastal City Sustainability, Mitigation, and Adaptation: A Case Study of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

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Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia
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Department of Environment, Faculty of Environmental and forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia
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Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
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School of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Centre for Ecosystem Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kristina Blennow, Ary Samsura, Erwin van der Krabben and Kristoffer B. Berse
Land 2021, 10(11), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111271
Received: 21 October 2021 / Revised: 7 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
Coastal hazards are an urgent issue of global concern considering the increasing population pressure in coastal regions, retreating coastlines, and rising seawater levels. Here we demonstrate the process of assessing the vulnerability of a coastal urban environment using the case of Kuala Terengganu, a coastal town in Malaysia, and evaluating the potential social, environmental, and economic impacts. Uncertainties in the human dimensions of global change deeply affect the assessment and responses to environmental, climatic, and non-climate impacts on coastal city population growth and communities. We address these uncertainties by combining a Delphi-Analytical Hierarchy Process (Delphi-AHP) model and Geographic Information System (GIS)tools to determine mitigation and adaptation probabilities as part of a Coastal City Vulnerability Assessment. We conclude by presenting calculations of the short- and long-term suitability for land use and recommending hazard mitigation measures to equip city planners and decision-makers in evaluating hazards and potential impacts on coastal city areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: Delphi-AHP model; GIS; erosion; climate change; vulnerability index; coastal city Delphi-AHP model; GIS; erosion; climate change; vulnerability index; coastal city
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bagheri, M.; Zaiton Ibrahim, Z.; Akhir, M.F.; Talaat, W.I.A.W.; Oryani, B.; Rezania, S.; Wolf, I.D.; Pour, A.B. Developing a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Coastal City Sustainability, Mitigation, and Adaptation: A Case Study of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Land 2021, 10, 1271. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111271

AMA Style

Bagheri M, Zaiton Ibrahim Z, Akhir MF, Talaat WIAW, Oryani B, Rezania S, Wolf ID, Pour AB. Developing a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Coastal City Sustainability, Mitigation, and Adaptation: A Case Study of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Land. 2021; 10(11):1271. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111271

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bagheri, Milad, Zelina Zaiton Ibrahim, Mohd F. Akhir, Wan I.A.W. Talaat, Bahareh Oryani, Shahabaldin Rezania, Isabelle D. Wolf, and Amin B. Pour 2021. "Developing a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Coastal City Sustainability, Mitigation, and Adaptation: A Case Study of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia" Land 10, no. 11: 1271. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111271

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