Next Article in Journal
Simulating the Impacts of an Upstream Dam on Pollutant Transport: A Case Study on the Xiangjiang River, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Design and Hydrologic Performance of a Tile Drainage Treatment Wetland in Minnesota, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Water Footprint of Industrial Tomato Cultivations in the Pinios River Basin: Soil Properties Interactions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microbial Community Assessment in Wetlands for Water Pollution Control: Past, Present, and Future Outlook
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(11), 514;

Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

1,2,3,†,* , 1,2,3,†
Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
Beijing Hanshiqiao National Wetland Ecosystem Research Station, Beijing 101399, China
The Beijing Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecological Function and Restoration, Beijing 100091, China
School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hans Brix, Carlos A. Arias and Pedro N. Carvalho
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5069 KB, uploaded 7 November 2016]   |  


We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N) removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38). The NO3-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01), but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01). The area-based constants of NO3-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD) and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01). The NO3-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01). The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01), suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum. View Full-Text
Keywords: horizontal subsurface flow wetland; N removal; first-order kinetics; model horizontal subsurface flow wetland; N removal; first-order kinetics; model

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cui, L.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wei, J.; Lei, Y.; Zhang, M.; Pan, X.; Zhao, X.; Li, K.; Ma, W. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model. Water 2016, 8, 514.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top