Next Article in Journal
Urban Flood Mapping Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing and Random Forest Classifier—A Case of Yuyao, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations
Previous Article in Journal
Rainwater Harvesting for Small-Holder Horticulture in Namibia: Design of Garden Variants and Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater
Open AccessArticle

Performance Evaluation for a Contamination Detection Method Using Multiple Water Quality Sensors in an Early Warning System

by , *,† and
School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Say-Leong Ong and Jiangyong Hu
Water 2015, 7(4), 1422-1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7041422
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
In this approach, a method utilizing data series from multivariate parameters to detect contaminant events is discussed and evaluated. Eight water quality sensors (pH, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, UV-254, nitrate and phosphate) are used in this study and the most commonly used herbicide, glyphosate, is selected as the test contaminant. Variations of all parameters are recorded in real time at different concentrations. The results from the experiment and analysis show that the proposed method with suitable optimization can detect a glyphosate contamination less than 5 min after the introduction of the contaminant using responses from online water quality sensors. The average true positive rate is 95.5%. The study also discusses the impact of the number of sensors on detection performance. The results show that if the number of sensors is reduced from 8 to 5, the true positive rate performance is still good. This indicates that the method is flexible and can be applied using a smaller number of sensors to reduce monitoring costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: multivariate parameters; conventional water quality sensor; contamination detection; glyphosate multivariate parameters; conventional water quality sensor; contamination detection; glyphosate
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Che, H.; Liu, S.; Smith, K. Performance Evaluation for a Contamination Detection Method Using Multiple Water Quality Sensors in an Early Warning System. Water 2015, 7, 1422-1436.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop