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Open AccessArticle

Methods of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus

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Research Department, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan
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University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2424 Maile Way Saunders Hall 540, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Department, Catholic Relief Services Philippines (Manila Office), CBCP Building 470 Gen Luna Street, Intramuros, 1002 Manila, Philippines
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Center for Research Promotion, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan
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Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd., 2-18-12 Nishiochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161-8575, Japan
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Department of Cultural Anthropology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marko Keskinen, Shokhrukh Jalilov and Olli Varis
Water 2015, 7(10), 5806-5830; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7105806
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins)
This paper focuses on a collection of methods that can be used to analyze the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus. We classify these methods as qualitative or quantitative for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research approaches. The methods for interdisciplinary research approaches can be used to unify a collection of related variables, visualize the research problem, evaluate the issue, and simulate the system of interest. Qualitative methods are generally used to describe the nexus in the region of interest, and include primary research methods such as Questionnaire Surveys, as well as secondary research methods such as Ontology Engineering and Integrated Maps. Quantitative methods for examining the nexus include Physical Models, Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA), Integrated Indices, and Optimization Management Models. The authors discuss each of these methods in the following sections, along with accompanying case studies from research sites in Japan and the Philippines. Although the case studies are specific to two regions, these methods could be applicable to other areas, with appropriate calibration. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-energy-food nexus (WEF); integrated tools; integrated indices; benefit-cost analysis (BCA); optimization management models; integrated maps; ontology engineering; physical models; interdisciplinary; transdisciplinary water-energy-food nexus (WEF); integrated tools; integrated indices; benefit-cost analysis (BCA); optimization management models; integrated maps; ontology engineering; physical models; interdisciplinary; transdisciplinary
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Endo, A.; Burnett, K.; Orencio, P.M.; Kumazawa, T.; Wada, C.A.; Ishii, A.; Tsurita, I.; Taniguchi, M. Methods of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. Water 2015, 7, 5806-5830.

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